Large Yacht Codes of Practice and Standards

Red ensign group large yacht code.

Collaboration between members of the Red Ensign Group (REG), which includes the UK and the industry as a whole, has led to the creation of a new yacht code.

The REG Yacht Code, which was launched on 13 November 2017 at the Global Superyacht Forum in Amsterdam, has considered all the expertise gained across almost two decades of regulating the large yacht sector since the Code of Practice for the Safety of Large Commercial Sailing and Motor Vessels, or LY1, was published by us in 1997.

In its new format, the REG Yacht Code is made up of two parts with common annexes - such as for over-side working systems, sailing vessels and helicopter landing areas. It keeps the familiar format of the existing REG codes while being more dynamic to industry change and development.

The REG Yacht Code combines the existing Large Yacht Code 3 and the Passenger Yacht Code into a single document and came into force on 1 January 2019.

The REG Yacht Code is in two parts with common annexes .

  • Part A relates to the Large Yacht Code
  • Part B relates to the Passenger Yacht Code

Large Commercial Yacht Code (3) or “LY3”

LY3 was launched at the 2012 Monaco Yacht Show and came into effect on 20 August 2013. It introduced equivalent requirements for large yachts to the requirements of the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC).

It also included updates for the requirements for masts and rigging for sailing yachts and the latest technology in radio communication equipment. 

LY3 has been replaced by the Red Ensign Group yacht code which came into effect on 1 January 2019.

Large Commercial Yacht Code (2) or “LY2”

LY2 came into effect on 24th September 2004. Chartering is a commercial use of a vessel, and therefore all yachts engaged in chartering activities must comply with the Code. A significant change in LY2 was the introduction of the Short-Range Yacht. LY2 was replaced by LY3 in 2013.

The Passenger Yacht Code

This Code has now been replaced by the Red Ensign Group Yacht Code Part B . 

The Passenger Yacht Code (PYC) was applicable to pleasure yachts: 

  • Of any size 
  • In private or commercial use 
  • Carrying 13 to 36 passengers 
  • Not carrying cargo 

It represents an International Maritime Organization (IMO) accepted equivalence to the requirements of international conventions including SOLAS up to 36 passengers.

The purpose of the 13 to 36 Passenger Yacht Code (PYC) was to provide design criteria, construction standards and other safety measures for yachts carrying 13 to 36 passengers to minimise the risk to such ships, to the personnel on board and to the environment. The criteria were largely based on the Conventions and Instruments referred to in the Code. 

  • Large Yacht (Part 1)
  • New Registration
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Red Ensign on the back of a ship

Red Ensign Group Publications

See Red Ensign Group publications and guidance on the REG website.

Clasification Society Rulefinder 2020 - Version 9.33 - Fix
General Requirements 4.1.1 All vessels should have a freeboard deck.

4.1.2 All vessels should be fitted with a weather deck throughout the length of the vessel and be of adequate strength to withstand the sea and weather conditions likely to be encountered in the declared area(s) of operation.

4.1.3 The declared area(s) of operation and any other conditions which restrict the use of the vessel at sea should be recorded on the load line certificate issued to the vessel.

4.1.4 The choice of hull construction material affects fire protection requirements, for which reference should be made to and .

SuperyachtNews

By SuperyachtNews 12 Jul 2017

A closer look at the REG Code

Will the red ensign group code enable more flexibility within yacht design.

Image for article A closer look at the REG Code

With the recently announced Red Ensign Group (REG) Code, to which the Cayman Islands Shipping Registry is taking the lead in the secretariat role, the group hopes to address certain frustrations associated with superyacht construction within a new regulatory framework for yachts. The new code will consolidate an updated version of the Large Yacht Code (LY3) and the latest version of the Passenger Yacht Code (PYC) and aim to make the code more usable.

This all-encompassing concept will not be a first for yacht coding – the Marshall Islands Shipping Registry’s RMI Code has one document that covers both large yachts and passenger yachts. However, the REG wants to differentiate the new code by including greater flexibility for naval architects, designers and yards. While the REG is developing the new code to match international conventions – and they expect to update the Load Line, SOLAS and STCW requirements to keep up with the steady trickle of updates from the International Maritime Organization (IMO) – the focus is also on giving opportunities to yards and designers to explore unique and innovative ideas that owners want.

“Although the codes will remain mostly the same, we want to ensure that within the prescriptive framework, we have alternative design and arrangement clauses,” says Jo Assael, Cayman’s senior surveyor and yacht codes specialist. “This will enable designers to go a little more off-piste and allow them, through rigorous design and engineering principles, to prove that an alternative standard is just as safe as the prescriptive one. Hopefully, this is going to open the doors to these unique designs that haven’t been allowed by the code in the past.” The REG is expecting publication of the new code in September 2017, which would lead to an application date for vessels with keels laid after 1 January, 2019.

“We are trying to make the codes as easy to understand and use as possible, but we do always have to remember that the underlying regulations or conventions come from the IMO and are designed for the international shipping community, which is inherently more experienced and more professional in their applications of the regulations,” adds Assael. “Designing and building a superyacht isn’t a simple thing and the Large Yacht Code and Passenger Yacht Code are very technical documents – we can’t dumb them down too much because they have to achieve a certain standard that is acceptable to the wider shipping community when we notify the IMO of the codes.”

With the new code, the Red Ensign Group also wants to look at industry best practice: certain construction equivalents have become such standard industry practice over the years and it is intended that these are written into the code. “We want to streamline that and make sure we are regulating how people are building boats today, as opposed to how they were building boats when we first wrote the Large Yacht Code in 1997,” explains Assael.

Examples of such standard practice tend to be on the engineering side of the vessel; for instance, ventilator exhaust and air pipes are required to have weathertight, closure, but on yachts they are generally all hidden in the bulwark or in the headlining. They are in protected locations so either there isn’t ready access to them or their protection from the weather is already afforded in the design, meaning the requirement for weathertight closure is not necessary.

“It is these ‘behind-the-scenes’ tweaks that never actually affect the owner’s enjoyment of a vessel or the aesthetics but define the way that we build the vessels and the way that they are operated today,” advises Assael. “We are trying to get them written into the code so builders can take advantage of them, and reduce the burden on build time and cost when it is something that we are happy for them to do from the start, as long as they follow X, Y and Z.”

To date, the REG has been hosting a number of working groups through which it hopes to ascertain what the industry itself hopes to see change. Various working groups have been created, spanning LY3, PYC, helicopter-landing areas and passenger limits. It is hoped that one of the key factors addressed will be allowing innovation while ensuring safe construction.

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Revised Red Ensign Group Yacht Code published

Approved Yacht Code Cover.jpg

A new revision of the gold standard Red Ensign Group Yacht Code is being published today (1 Jan).

It represents all the expertise gained across almost three decades of regulating the large yacht sector since the first version was published by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency in 1997.

This represents the first significant revision since 2019 and has been developed over a period of two years in close consultation with the REG Yacht Code Industry Working Group, which consists of a wide-ranging number of stakeholders including shipyards, designers, management companies and regulatory authorities .

Substantive changes have been made to reflect the relevant regulatory amendments that have been published in recent years by the IMO and to accommodate current trends and innovation in yacht design.

Significant amendments to the existing text have also been made to provide additional clarification to those areas of the Code which have previously been open to interpretation with a view to ensuring its consistent application and setting a level playing field for industry.

large yacht code 4

A Red Ensign Group spokesperson said: “The REG Yacht Code is the international standard for the design, construction and operation of these vessels.

“We will never compromise on  safety and crew welfare and maintain the highest maritime regulatory  standards. However, we do recognise that it’s important to support innovation and technological developments in a rapidly changing industry.”

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LY2: the large yacht code

LY2 was the 2005 update of the original 'code of practice for the safety of large commercial sailing and motor vessels', known as LY1.

LY2 is a previous version of the code of practice for the safety of large commercial yachts under 3000 gross tonnage. This code has been replaced by the Red Ensign Group Yacht Code

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Rules for the Charter of Yachts Over 24 Metres under the British Flag

The purpose of this guide is to provide information concerning the flag state rules applicable to British registered yachts of over 24 metres in Load Line length that are operated for charter.

The  Red Ensign Group Yacht Code (known as “REG Code”) provides the framework for the construction and operation of commercially operated yachts over 24 metres in Load Line length.

The Red Ensign Group is the collective working party for the shipping registries comprising the British Register of Ships. This includes the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies (Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey) and eight UK Overseas Territories (including the British Virgin Islands and Cayman Islands).

Any vessel registered in the UK, a Crown Dependency or UK Overseas Territory, is a “British ship” and is entitled to fly the Red Ensign flag. The Red Ensign is the most popular international flag flown by large yachts due to its high level of quality, prestige and universal acceptability. It is estimated that around 80% of the world’s large yacht fleet flies the British flag.

The REG Code prescribes standards of safety determined by the relevant International Conventions or by equivalent standards where it is not reasonable or practicable for yachts to comply. The REG Code is therefore an equivalence under the provisions of Article 8 of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, Regulation I-5 of the International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, and Article 9 of the International Convention on Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 as amended.

The development of the REG Code was based on the consideration that full compliance with the provisions of applicable International Conventions are often unreasonable and in some instances disproportionately onerous compared to the incremental increase in safety levels achieved for yachts which operate under very different conditions when compared to a typical commercial ship.

The REG Code further develops the well-established industry standards of the current codes and assimilate the lessons learned from many years of regulating the large yacht sector since the first version of the Large Yacht Code was published by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) in 1997.

The REG Code is divided into two parts (A & B) with a set of common annexes. The latest update of the RED Code was first published on the 1st January, 2024 with an implementation date in July, 2024.

Part A is an updated version of the Large Yacht Code applicable to yachts which are 24 metres or over in load line length, in commercial use for sport or pleasure and don’t carry cargo or more than 12 passengers.

A copy of Part A of the code can be accessed through the following link:

Part A REG Red Ensign Group Yacht Code

Part B is an updated version of the Passenger Yacht Code applicable to pleasure yachts of any size, in private use or engaged in trade, which carry more than 12 but not more than 36 passengers and do not carry cargo.

A copy of Part B of the code can be accessed through the following link:

Part B REG Red Ensign Group Yacht Code

The annexes include sections for areas that are common to both Part A and Part B.

A copy of the annexes can be accessed through the following link:

Annexes REG Red Ensign Group Yacht Code

It should be remembered that the coding of a yacht used for charter is only one stage of the process and that advice should always be taken in respect of local legal and fiscal obligations prior to the commencement of any commercial activity.

Oceanskies in conjunction with class and flag state is able to provide a complete charter yacht registration package combining commercial British flag yacht registration under red ensign with coding certification and the employment of crew through Oceanskies Crew Limited in a Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) environment.

Please do not hesitate to contact us for further information.

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Technique improves the reasoning capabilities of large language models

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A question mark amidst numbers and acronyms

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Large language models like those that power ChatGPT have shown impressive performance on tasks like drafting legal briefs, analyzing the sentiment of customer reviews, or translating documents into different languages.

These machine-learning models typically use only natural language to process information and answer queries, which can make it difficult for them to perform tasks that require numerical or symbolic reasoning.

For instance, a large language model might be able to memorize and recite a list of recent U.S. presidents and their birthdays, but that same model could fail if asked the question “Which U.S. presidents elected after 1950 were born on a Wednesday?” (The answer is Jimmy Carter.)

Researchers from MIT and elsewhere have proposed a new technique that enables large language models to solve natural language, math and data analysis, and symbolic reasoning tasks by generating programs.

Their approach, called natural language embedded programs (NLEPs), involves prompting a language model to create and execute a Python program to solve a user’s query, and then output the solution as natural language.

They found that NLEPs enabled large language models to achieve higher accuracy on a wide range of reasoning tasks. The approach is also generalizable, which means one NLEP prompt can be reused for multiple tasks.

NLEPs also improve transparency, since a user could check the program to see exactly how the model reasoned about the query and fix the program if the model gave a wrong answer.

“We want AI to perform complex reasoning in a way that is transparent and trustworthy. There is still a long way to go, but we have shown that combining the capabilities of programming and natural language in large language models is a very good potential first step toward a future where people can fully understand and trust what is going on inside their AI model,” says Hongyin Luo PhD ’22, an MIT postdoc and co-lead author of a paper on NLEPs .

Luo is joined on the paper by co-lead authors Tianhua Zhang, a graduate student at the Chinese University of Hong Kong; and Jiaxin Ge, an undergraduate at Peking University; Yoon Kim, an assistant professor in MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and a member of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL); senior author James Glass, senior research scientist and head of the Spoken Language Systems Group in CSAIL; and others. The research will be presented at the Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics.

Problem-solving with programs

Many popular large language models work by predicting the next word, or token, given some natural language input. While models like GPT-4 can be used to write programs, they embed those programs within natural language, which can lead to errors in the program reasoning or results.

With NLEPs, the MIT researchers took the opposite approach. They prompt the model to generate a step-by-step program entirely in Python code, and then embed the necessary natural language inside the program.

An NLEP is a problem-solving template with four steps. First, the model calls the necessary packages, or functions, it will need to solve the task. Step two involves importing natural language representations of the knowledge the task requires (like a list of U.S. presidents’ birthdays). For step three, the model implements a function that calculates the answer. And for the final step, the model outputs the result as a line of natural language with an automatic data visualization, if needed.

“It is like a digital calculator that always gives you the correct computation result as long as the program is correct,” Luo says.

The user can easily investigate the program and fix any errors in the code directly rather than needing to rerun the entire model to troubleshoot.

The approach also offers greater efficiency than some other methods. If a user has many similar questions, they can generate one core program and then replace certain variables without needing to run the model repeatedly.

To prompt the model to generate an NLEP, the researchers give it an overall instruction to write a Python program, provide two NLEP examples (one with math and one with natural language), and one test question.

“Usually, when people do this kind of few-shot prompting, they still have to design prompts for every task. We found that we can have one prompt for many tasks because it is not a prompt that teaches LLMs to solve one problem, but a prompt that teaches LLMs to solve many problems by writing a program,” says Luo.

“Having language models reason with code unlocks many opportunities for tool use, output validation, more structured understanding into model's capabilities and way of thinking, and more,” says Leonid Karlinsky, principal scientist at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab.

“No magic here”

NLEPs achieved greater than 90 percent accuracy when prompting GPT-4 to solve a range of symbolic reasoning tasks, like tracking shuffled objects or playing a game of 24, as well as instruction-following and text classification tasks. The researchers found that NLEPs even exhibited 30 percent greater accuracy than task-specific prompting methods. The method also showed improvements over open-source LLMs. 

Along with boosting the accuracy of large language models, NLEPs could also improve data privacy. Since NLEP programs are run locally, sensitive user data do not need to be sent to a company like OpenAI or Google to be processed by a model.

In addition, NLEPs can enable small language models to perform better without the need to retrain a model for a certain task, which can be a costly process.

“There is no magic here. We do not have a more expensive or fancy language model. All we do is use program generation instead of natural language generation, and we can make it perform significantly better,” Luo says.

However, an NLEP relies on the program generation capability of the model, so the technique does not work as well for smaller models which have been trained on limited datasets. In the future, the researchers plan to study methods that could make smaller language models generate more effective NLEPs. In addition, they want to investigate the impact of prompt variations on NLEPs to enhance the robustness of the model’s reasoning processes.

This research was supported, in part, by the Center for Perceptual and Interactive Intelligence of Hong Kong. 

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Title: chatglm: a family of large language models from glm-130b to glm-4 all tools.

Abstract: We introduce ChatGLM, an evolving family of large language models that we have been developing over time. This report primarily focuses on the GLM-4 language series, which includes GLM-4, GLM-4-Air, and GLM-4-9B. They represent our most capable models that are trained with all the insights and lessons gained from the preceding three generations of ChatGLM. To date, the GLM-4 models are pre-trained on ten trillions of tokens mostly in Chinese and English, along with a small set of corpus from 24 languages, and aligned primarily for Chinese and English usage. The high-quality alignment is achieved via a multi-stage post-training process, which involves supervised fine-tuning and learning from human feedback. Evaluations show that GLM-4 1) closely rivals or outperforms GPT-4 in terms of general metrics such as MMLU, GSM8K, MATH, BBH, GPQA, and HumanEval, 2) gets close to GPT-4-Turbo in instruction following as measured by IFEval, 3) matches GPT-4 Turbo (128K) and Claude 3 for long context tasks, and 4) outperforms GPT-4 in Chinese alignments as measured by AlignBench. The GLM-4 All Tools model is further aligned to understand user intent and autonomously decide when and which tool(s) touse -- including web browser, Python interpreter, text-to-image model, and user-defined functions -- to effectively complete complex tasks. In practical applications, it matches and even surpasses GPT-4 All Tools in tasks like accessing online information via web browsing and solving math problems using Python interpreter. Over the course, we have open-sourced a series of models, including ChatGLM-6B (three generations), GLM-4-9B (128K, 1M), GLM-4V-9B, WebGLM, and CodeGeeX, attracting over 10 million downloads on Hugging face in the year 2023 alone. The open models can be accessed through this https URL and this https URL .
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EU hits Chinese EVs with tariffs, drawing rebuke from Beijing

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COMMENTS

  1. LY3: the large yacht code

    Includes: the large yacht code (LY3) the yacht master's guide to the UK flag. the division of responsibilities. merchant shipping notice (MSN) 1851 announcing the replacement of LY2 with LY3.

  2. PDF Red Ensign Group Yacht Code Part A

    During 2016 and 2017, the Red Ensign Group (REG) has been working alongside the Large Yacht industry to develop this 'REG Yacht Code'. This new Code consists of two parts; Part A, being an update to the existing Large Yacht Code (LY3), and Part B being an update to the Passenger Yacht Code 6th Edition (PYC). Although combined into a single ...

  3. PDF LY3 The Large Commercial Yacht Code

    Since its original publication, the Large Yacht Code has made a significant impression on a maritime sector which previously found great difficulty in embracing conventional regulation. As a result the Code enjoys both national support and international recognition as a standard, breaking new ground both in its inception and methodology.

  4. PDF Red Ensign Group Yacht Code Part B

    During 2016 and 2017, the Red Ensign Group (REG) has been working alongside the Large Yacht industry to develop this 'REG Yacht Code'. This new Code consists of two parts; Part A, being an ... Red Ensign Group Yacht Code Part B (Page 4 of 206) January 2019 Edition This page is intentionally added to achieve correct pagination. Red Ensign ...

  5. LY3: the large commercial yacht code

    The code of safe practice for large commercial yachts, and a list of the main changes from previous version LY2. ... LY3: the large commercial yacht code. Ref: MS 174/004/055. PDF, 2.4 MB, 190 pages.

  6. Red Ensign Group yacht code

    Details. The code came into force on 1 January 2019 and combines the large yacht code version 3 and the passenger yacht code. Includes: The code of safe practice for large commercial yachts.

  7. Large Yacht Codes of Practice and Standards

    Large Commercial Yacht Code (2) or "LY2". LY2 came into effect on 24th September 2004. Chartering is a commercial use of a vessel, and therefore all yachts engaged in chartering activities must comply with the Code. A significant change in LY2 was the introduction of the Short-Range Yacht. LY2 was replaced by LY3 in 2013.

  8. LY3

    LY3 - The Large Commercial Yacht Code. 1 Foreword. 2 Definitions. 3 Application and Interpretation. 4 Construction and Strength. 5 Weathertight Integrity. 6 Water Freeing Arrangements. 7A Machinery - Vessels of Less than 500GT. 7B Machinery - Vessels of 500GT and Over.

  9. PDF The Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2)

    Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2). 9. This revision has taken place in consultation with the large yacht Industry and all comments from a public consultation have been considered by Working Groups comprising of experts from the international large yacht industry. 10. LY2 replaces the original Code under provisions of regulation 2(2) of the Merchant

  10. PDF COOK ISLANDS CODE OF PRACTICE LARGE YACHTS ( meters)

    Maritime Cook Islands Large Yacht Code v.4 iii 5.6 Sailing Yacht Rigging..... 30

  11. 4.1 General Requirements

    Statutory Documents - MCA Publications - LY2 - The Large Commercial Yacht Code - 4 Construction and Strength - 4.1 General Requirements 4.1 General Requirements 4.1.1 All vessels should have a freeboard deck. 4.1.2 All vessels ... 4.1.3 The declared area(s) ...

  12. PDF Background to the Large Yacht Code

    The UK's Maritime and Coastguard Agency's "Code of Practice for the Safety of Large Commercial Sailing and Motor Vessels", or LY1, and sometimes known as "The Megayacht Code", was introduced in 1998. The Code applied to vessels in commercial use for sport or pleasure, which are 24 metres in "load line" length and over.

  13. PDF The Large Commercial Yacht Code

    Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2) Second Edition in 2007 which were issued as the Annex to Merchant Shipping Notice 1792. The latest version of the Large Commercial Yacht Code is now LY3. Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY3) 2. LY3, like its predecessors, has been developed by an industry working group in order

  14. Part A

    Part A - Large Yacht Code (up to 12 passengers) Preamble. Chapter 1 - Application and Interpretation. Chapter 2 - Definitions. Chapter 3 - Application of International Conventions and National Legislation. Chapter 4 - Construction and Strength. Chapter 5 - Weathertight Integrity.

  15. PDF Including Corrigenda no.1 and 2

    During 2016 and 2017, the Red Ensign Group (REG) has been working alongside the Large Yacht industry to develop this 'REG Yacht Code'. This new Code consists of two parts; Part A, being an ... Red Ensign Group Yacht Code Part B (Page 4 of 208) January 2019 Edition including Corrigenda no.1 & no.2 . This page is intentionally added to ...

  16. SuperyachtNews.com

    The new code will consolidate an updated version of the Large Yacht Code (LY3) and the latest version of the Passenger Yacht Code (PYC) and aim to make the code more usable. This all-encompassing concept will not be a first for yacht coding - the Marshall Islands Shipping Registry's RMI Code has one document that covers both large yachts ...

  17. PDF Döhle Yacht Crew

    A copy of the Code may be obtained from the Döhle Yachts website. Other Codes Other jurisdictions have their own Codes; such as: Marshal Islands and Cook Islands. The "Passenger Yacht Code" (PYC) was introduced in 2010. The Code of Practice applies to pleasure yachts of any size, in private use or engaged in trade, which carry more than 12 but

  18. Revised Red Ensign Group Yacht Code published

    A new revision of the gold standard Red Ensign Group Yacht Code is being published today (1 Jan). It represents all the expertise gained across almost three decades of regulating the large yacht sector since the first version was published by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency in 1997. This represents the first significant revision since 2019 ...

  19. PDF Large Yacht Rules

    Purpose - The purpose of these Rules is to -. Implement LY3 and the CI Large Yacht Code for Cook Islands registered yachts ≥ 24 meters in length; Enforce compliance with LY3 and the CI Large Yacht Code by way of investigation and enforcement under the Act. Maritime & Coastguard Agency Merchant Shipping Notice MSN 1851 (M) (LY3) and Cook ...

  20. LY2: the large yacht code

    LY2: the large yacht code. LY2 was the 2005 update of the original 'code of practice for the safety of large commercial sailing and motor vessels', known as LY1. LY2 is a previous version of the ...

  21. Rules for the Charter of Yachts Over 24 Metres under the British Flag

    The Red Ensign Group Yacht Code (known as "REG Code") provides the framework for the construction and operation of commercially operated yachts over 24 metres in Load Line length. ... Part A is an updated version of the Large Yacht Code applicable to yachts which are 24 metres or over in load line length, in commercial use for sport or ...

  22. PDF MSN 1792 (M) The Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2)

    1. MSN 1792 (M) The Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2) Notice to all designers, builders, owners, operators, employers, crews, skippers, and Classification Societies. This Notice should be read in conjunction with the Merchant Shipping (Vessels in Commercial Use for Sport or Pleasure) Regulations 19981, as amended2. Summary.

  23. Technique improves the reasoning capabilities of large language models

    A new technique enables large language models like GPT-4 to more accurately solve numeric or symbolic reasoning tasks by writing a Python program in code that generates the correct answer to a user's query. ... "Having language models reason with code unlocks many opportunities for tool use, output validation, more structured understanding ...

  24. ChatGLM: A Family of Large Language Models from GLM-130B to GLM-4 All Tools

    We introduce ChatGLM, an evolving family of large language models that we have been developing over time. This report primarily focuses on the GLM-4 language series, which includes GLM-4, GLM-4-Air, and GLM-4-9B. They represent our most capable models that are trained with all the insights and lessons gained from the preceding three generations of ChatGLM. To date, the GLM-4 models are pre ...

  25. EU hits Chinese EVs with tariffs, drawing rebuke from Beijing

    The EU imported around 440,000 EVs from China in the 12 months ending in April worth 9 billion euros ($9.7 billion) or around 4% of household expenditure on vehicles.