65 meter yachts for sale

SEANNA Motor yacht for sale

SEANNA is an 65-metre (213ft) full displacement tri-deck yacht designed and built by Benetti, and delivered in 2011. She has a steel hull built to Lloyds classification and aluminium superstructure that combines classic Benetti motifs such as covered companionways and streamlined, sculpted mullions with the clean, crisp lines of a modern yacht. The interior design and styling are by Redman Whiteley Dixon and Susan Young.

65 meter yachts for sale

SEANNA is an 65-metre (213ft) full displacement tri-deck yacht designed and built by Benetti, and delivered in 2011. She has a steel hull built to Lloyds classification and aluminium superstructure that combines classic Benetti motifs such as covered companionways and streamlined, sculpted mullions with the clean, crisp lines of a modern yacht. The interior design and styling are by Redman Whiteley Dixon and Susan Young.

Her exterior highlights include an elevated observation deck above the large sundeck which has an enclosed lounge/dining/party room amidships and plenty of open-air space forward and aft. There’s also a Portuguese bridge with sunpads on the forward coachroof, and two partially shaded aft decks. She also has an indoor/outdoor gymnasium on the lower deck with a hinged wall that folds out to serve as a sea-level terrace and a large beach club in her stern.

The sundeck has an elevated jacuzzi pool up front, plus a forward-facing bar and lounge, and a wide-open space for sun loungers astern. The upper aft deck is spacious with an impressive 14-seat teak dining table as its centrepiece, plus a bar, buffet and several clusters of lounge seating. The main deck aft is another outdoor lounge with its own bar.

Her 1,426GT interior is arranged to host up to 14 guests on board in six double and two twin cabins. Key features of the design scheme include fine Italian leathers, rich walnut veneers and nickel inlays. There’s a grand marble foyer on the main deck and a notably high standard of finish throughout.

The main salon converts to a cinema and there’s a separate TV lounge alongside the formal dining room. She also has a library on the main deck and a massage room with two private beds. The skylounge above is an elegant lounge bar.

All the way forward on the main deck, the master suite includes two full bathrooms, a separate study and a private lounge. There’s also a VIP cabin on the upper deck and five others – three doubles, two twins – down below.

Her main tender is an 8.5m custom built wooden StanCraft speedboat with a 350hp inboard engine and elegant classic lines. She also carries a 7.5m Nouvrania RIB and her inventory of watersports equipment includes a pair of Yamaha Waverunners.

Twin Caterpillar 3516B diesels with a combined 4,522hp give a top speed of 17kts, a 15kt cruising speed and a maximum range at 12kts of 5,000nm. Two pairs of Naiad zero speed stabilisers are fitted.

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Key features

  • Elegant interior design finished with fine Italian leathers, rich walnut woodwork, nickel inlays, and marble throughout
  • Accommodation for 14 guests in seven cabins
  • Massive sun deck with indoor/outdoor lounge area and an elevated pool forward
  • Fully equipped gym at sea level with fold-down terrace
  • Massage facility with two private rooms
  • Private library with an electric fireplace forward of the main salon
  • Touch-and-go helipad on the sun deck aft

65 meter yachts for sale

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65 meter yachts for sale

EUR 35,800,000

  • Length: 64.8m (212.6ft)
  • Guests: 14 guests in 6 cabins
  • Built: 2006 (refitted 2017)

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Construction begins on RMK Marine's largest explorer yacht

RMK Marine has laid the keel of its 65-metre custom explorer in an "emotional ceremony", according to the shipyard's yacht director Özgur Numan. Provisionally known as ER65 , the yacht is due for launch in 2026 when she will become RMK Marine's flagship.

ER65 has been designed with long-range cruising and go-anywhere capabilities in mind. The 1,374GT yacht will be built to Lloyds ice-class standards and will be one of a rare few to carry the title of Polar Code Category B - Ice Class PC 6.

To complement her explorer nature, ER65 will boast a helipad with a refuelling station and a dedicated tender hangar complete with a watertight compartment to store a deep-water submarine.

The yacht’s clean and minimalist design comes courtesy of the Vancouver-based studio ER Yacht Design , which will handle the interiors also. Engineering and production design has been handled by RMK Marine and Eureka Yachts.

"This is the kind of project that a yacht designer waits for all his life," said Ivan Erdevecki, founder of ER Yacht Design. "The owner specifically requested a custom-designed, long-range, go-anywhere project for an expedition motor yacht, with style and an elegant timeless, classic look, that I was very happy to land on my desk."

Accommodation is offered for 12 guests with a crew of 20. Spread over five decks, ER65 will boast a long list of amenities including a library, sauna, gym, massage room and medical facilities. Alongside her helicopter, the yacht will also have two eight-metre custom-built aluminium expedition tenders.

“For this reason, our shipyard is the perfect fit for a project such as ER65,” said Özgür Numan, yacht department director at RMK Marine. “When we first saw the general arrangements and the profile of the yacht, we simply fell in love with its elegance and graceful sheer line. We are very excited about the idea of building this craft."

According to BOATPro , RMK Marine has three yachts currently under construction – including the 49.9-metre Project Aries, which recently changed central agency.

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65 meter yachts for sale

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The Fleming 65 was introduced in mid 2005 in response to a strong demand for an intermediate Fleming between the 55 and the 75. Her layout is very similar in concept to the 55 but the 65, being around 70% larger in displacement, offers much more interior and deck space than her smaller sibling. Fleming Yachts decided to retain hull number 1 (named Venture) to evaluate her design performance as a well-found cruising yacht as well as providing a test bed for new equipment. Since commissioning in 2005 Tony Fleming has cruised VENTURE more than 60,000 miles along the West Coast of North America from La Paz, Mexico to Juneau, Alaska, back down the Coast to the Sea of Cortez, to the Galapagos Islands, through the Panama Canal, up the East Coast into the Hudson River, Erie Canal and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Along the way Tony has provided the yard with valuable feedback and suggestions that have been incorporated in the 65 production line. Thanks to Tony's extensive testing and evaluation of these refinements, several new items are now available on production models.

We are very proud that a panel of thirteen judges from the Internationally respected 'Yachts' magazine voted the Fleming 65 best yacht in her class, worldwide, for 2006. As of January 2019, 51 Fleming 65's have been built at the highly regarded Tung Hwa yard in Taiwan, which has built every Fleming yacht since they were introduced in 1985.

Standard Specifications

70' 10' (21.6 m)

61' 11' (18.9 m)

18' 8' (5.7 m)

5' (1.52 m)

17' 11' (5.46 m)

Displacement Light:

102,698 lbs (46,583 kg)

Displacement Full:

124,663 lbs (56,546 kg)

1,700 US gals (6,435 l)

400 US gals (1,514 l)

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Fleming 65 Specifications

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Hull 65-022

Hull 65-039

Hull 65-040 (3D Version)

Hull 65-051 (w/full beam Master Cabin)

Hull 65-053

Hull 65-060

Hull 65-056

65 meter yachts for sale

Performance Curves

65 meter yachts for sale

Overview Continued...

As with all Flemings, special attention has been paid to the ease and safety in which the heavy duty ground tackle is set and retrieved. Originally designed for the Fleming 75, the 65's anchor platform is especially large and robust. The anchor platform accepts two 132 lbs. (60Kg) Ultra anchors, each of which can be controlled by a handheld unit at the platform or by windlass controls at both pilothouse and flying bridge stations. A pair of hydraulically powered Maxwell RC12 vertical windlasses with capstans are standard equipment, as is a 300ft (91m) length of Grade-60 stainless steel chain. 

F65 Foredeck

There are port and starboard storage lockers to each side of the platform base, where salt and freshwater washdown  bibs are located as well as two, 50-amp shorepower inlets which are convenient when docking bow first.

A centerline hatch opens for access to the double chain locker, which is separated from the yacht's interior by a collision bulkhead. The locker can house two 300-foot (91m) lengths of anchor chain and several hundred feet of rode. It is also big enough to stow fenders and extra lines. It drains overboard just above the waterline, keeping the bilge clean and dry. 

A teak caprail and oval shaped stainless steel handrail are standardl. To prevent damage during docking, the handrail is located slightly inboard of the bulwark. Moving aft, the cabin top features four built-in storage lockers, ideal for stowing lines and fenders. The lockers and the deck drains into specially designed, hidden manifolds, which exit just above the waterline, keeping the topside free of dark streaks.

Fleming also pays special attention to the number, position and size of its mooring cleats, and the F65 features four large cleats on both the port and starboard side forward of the deckhouse, making it easy to properly secure the yacht in a variety of situations. Teak or non-skid decking can be ordered for the foredeck. Convenient handrails are located on the forward coach roof, and together with the teak or stainless handrail above the bulwarks, it is safe to move along the foredeck in a seaway.

Protection against heavy weather is provided by the Portuguese Bridge, which features port and stbd gates for access between the foredeck and the side decks. Deck level LED courtesy lighting enhances safety after dark. The aft section of the Portuguese Bridge features built-in storage lockers for a variety of cruising gear.

One of Fleming's signature design features is its wide side decks that enable safe, sure-footed movement from bow to stern while at sea and during docking manoeuvres. Heavy duty, stainless steel handrails are strategically located to minimize risk of injury. For convenient, effortless boarding in a variety of situations, there are port and starboard boarding gates at both the high and low deck levels, for a total of four. For added convenience and safety, these gates open inboard.

Aft Deck and Swim Platform

The large cockpit space is beautifully finished with teak decking for its superior non-skid properties and sound dampening qualities. While many owners prefer to keep this space open for a variety of watersports activities, others use it as an outside dining area. A dining table can be ordered that follows the contour of the transom, with seating for 8.

Access to the area is via a boarding gate in the transom. Adjacent to the gate is a freshwater shower fitting as well as a saltwater washdown bib.

Optional engine and thruster controls can be located in the cockpit cabinet, making backing into a slip a simple procedure. Optional are two warping winches, which are invaluable when docking "Med" style. Two 50-amp CableMaster power cord systems are located in the transom, one on the port side, one starboard.

The engine room air intake vents are located under the port and stbd cockpit coamings to prevent salt spray from entering the engine room.

The flybridge is easily and safely accessed by the 5-step stairway from the pilothouse. The upper helm, located on the port side, is slightly raised to enhance visibility forward and features a Stidd double helm seat and a console for full instrumentation and electronics. A U-shaped settee with storage underneath and dining table that seats 6 is standard.

A number of different arrangements and equipment can be ordered, depending on the owner's intended use of the area. A large deep freeze, various types of barbecue grills, a wet bar, icemaker, refrigerator and extra seating are popular options.

Also optional is a hardtop with a canvas-glass enclosure, which creates additional all-weather living space. Aft of the flybridge area is the boat deck, with space for a 16-foot inflatable yacht tender. A 1,500-lb. (680kg) capacity Steelhead hydraulic davit system is standard as is a freshwater bib and 110 VAC (230 VAC for European version) outlet for keeping the tender's battery charged. The stainless steel safety rail has a removable section for launching a life raft. Typical of Fleming's obsessive attention to details, the boat deck drains to a series of built-in, stainless steel drains connected to a drain manifold system that exits just above the waterline to prevent streaking of the cabin sides and topsides.

Main Salon & Galley

The large, spacious main salon can be built with a number of different arrangements. A dedicated dining area can be located to starboard with a large settee area to port. In place of the dining area, a second settee can be located on the stbd side opposite the main settee. Or, a large, built-in cabinet can be built on the starboard side with lounge chairs facing the main settee. 

A soft, synthetic leather headliner provides a sense of warmth and style, and there is space for a 42" TV on a powered tv lift.

In the aft, port corner, the owner has a choice of a wet bar with refrigerator and wine cooler or more cabinet space with glass doors. Wooden blinds recessed into the window frames are standard. LED lighting is used throughout, including on the inside of most cabinets.

The galley features a 21-cu. ft. side-by-side refrigerator/freezer on the starboard side and a built-in dish cabinet and pantry space. Granite counter tops, an undermount stainless steel double sink, instant hot water dispenser, waste disposal, convection microwave, and Miele induction cooktop are standard. There is room for an optional dishwasher.


A number of layouts are available for the 3-stateroom accommodations area. Most layouts feature a central passageway, which is just 4-steps down from the main salon area. A full beam master cabin layout is also available with access from the pilothosue.

In most cases, the owner's stateroom is located forward and features an island berth that lifts for easy storage beneath, a private head, and two large hanging lockers.

The port guest stateroom can be built with an island double berth, twins or a double with a pull out, single berth over it. Another option, as shown, is to include a pipe berth over the double. This stateroom shares a head with the second guest stateroom, although a 3-head arrangement is also available.

The starboard guest stateroom can be built with two over-under single berths or with one berth and a private head. A popular layout has the owner's cabin to port and a VIP stateroom forward.

A separate washer and dryer is located in the passageway along with a supply closet and slide-out laundry hamper. The entire accommodations area is finished in warm teak with a synthetic leather headliner. 

Engine Room

Accessed from an exterior hatch aft of the salon doors that leads to a submarine-style door, the engine room is signature Fleming - well thought out, extremely functional and beautifully finished. Standard power is a pair of MAN i6-800 hp diesel engines, and MAN V8-1,000 HP engines are optional. There is room for two  generators, and most owners choose to install two, one with a smaller output for use during moderate power requirements and one larger unit when more power is called for.

To achieve the extremely low sound and vibration that Flemings are well known for, the Aquadrive system isolates the engine and transmission from the propeller thrust, permitting the use of much softer engine mounts. Aquadrive is fitted as standard and their rotating couplings are concealed beneath fiberglass covers for safety. The engine mounts are installed on full-length, polished stainless steel channel sections, a system that has been standard on all Flemings since their inception in 1985.

An intelligently designed and meticulously executed fuel management system takes all the guesswork out of transferring fuel and making sure each engine is being properly fed. The system makes it impossible to overfill a tank by switching a fuel return valve the wrong way.

The arrangement of all mechanical systems has been done with the need for proper maintenance in mind. Every piece of equipment is accessible, and there are places for mechanics to stand and place their tools without damaging vital gear. An optional engine room air conditioning system is available, a detail that will not go unnoticed by the vessel's mechanic.

The aft lazarette houses the water tanks, steering gear and air conditioning compressors while also leaving ample room for storing cruising gear such as spare anchors, rode, lines, fenders and parts.

Main access is through the outside engine room hatch and down a set of curved stainless and teak steps. There are two additional cockpit hatches that allow quick access to stowed gear. Two freshwater pumps are installed and plumbed, providing instant switchover capability in case of failure.

The Fleming 65 pilothouse is the nerve center of the vessel and can be completely separated from the activities throughout the rest of the yacht by its bi-panel teak door. The day head to starboard can also be ordered as a "wet-head" complete with shower, and an insert for the settee creates a convenient watch berth. This arrangement allows the pilothouse to be used as an extra cabin when necessary. Either one or two Stidd helm chairs can be installed, and a raised settee and table provide additional seating for four.

The forward console area has been designed to accommodate a full array of today's modern electronics, and easy accessibility has been built in to allow for service and eventual upgrades. The electrical distribution panels are below the main controls and are hinged and illuminated for access and service.

Visibility forward and to port and stbd is excellent, and two sliding doors open to the wide side decks. A traditional teak and holly sole is standard. There are large drawers and working space for charts, cruising books, navigation instruments, binoculars, cell phones and chargers, log books, flashlights and everything else a captain needs to chart and follow a safe course. A large stainless steel and teak-trimmed destroyer steering wheel fits the ambience of this ultimate cruising yacht.

There is an ongoing process at Fleming Yachts to constantly refine our designs and incorporate improvements to each and every vessel we build. By focusing on a limited number of models Flemings have become known as "The Ultimate Cruising Yachts" We invite you to see a Fleming up close at one of our dealers or to visit us at one of the many boat shows we attend. Please check our Calendar of Events. 


  • LOA (hull): 67' 4" (20.5m)
  • LOA (including swim step and anchor platform): 70' 10" (21.6m)
  • LWL: 61' 11" (18.9m)
  • Beam: 18' 8" (5.7m)
  • Draft: 5' (1.52m)
  • Air draft (to top of radar arch): 17' 11" (5.46m)
  • Minimum Operating Condition: 102,698 Lbs. (46,583kg)
  • Loaded Condition: 124,663 Lbs. (56,546kg)
  • Main Engines: Twin MAN i6-800 (800 HP @ 2300 RPM)
  • Transmission:  Twin Disc MGX-5126A or ZF 360A with electric shift and troll valves 
  • Reduction Ratio: 2.50:1
  • Power Take-off :  Clutched C-Pad PTO's on both transmissions
  • Engine Controls: Glendinning EEC3 (with back-up system)
  • Generator: Onan eQD 21.5Kw, 220v, 60 Hz (European model 17.5Kw, 230v, 50Hz,)
  • Stabilizers: ABT TRAC 9 Sq. Ft fins with winglets, 250 model actuators 
  • Bow Thruster: ABT 38HP Hydraulic 
  • Stern Thruster: ABT 20HP Hydraulic 
  • Fuel Tanks: 1,700 US gals (6,435 Liters) in four tanks 
  • Water Tanks: 400 US gals (1,514 Liters) in four tanks
  • Black Water Tank: 330 USG (1249 Liters)
  • Monitoring System: Fleming First Mate (FFM) - Boning

65 meter yachts for sale

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Yachts for Sale Location: Moscow

Unfortunately, we currently do not have any yachts in Moscow listed in our inventory. However, our knowledgeable brokers can assist you in locating and acquiring the perfect vessel, even if it's not currently advertised on the market.

Don't hesitate to reach out to our team of experts. They have extensive connections and resources to help you find your dream yacht, tailored to your specific preferences and requirements.

a large white ship in the water aboard POLAR STAR Yacht for Sale

Asking € 54,000,000

POLAR STAR Yacht for Sale

214’ ( 65.17m) Lurssen motor yacht POLAR STAR is a new addition the Eastwind Yachts Sales fleet.  This exceptional ship was delivered in 2005, underwent an extensive refit in 2021/2022 and is continuously upgraded. POLAR STAR accommodates 12 guests in 5 luxurious staterooms.   Her new interior gives off a feeling of comfortable sophistication, with soft ocean tones throughout the ship. Commodious well-designed areas for guest entertainment and relaxation. 

The superyacht has a beam of 12.6m, a draft of 3.7m, and a volume of 1,495GT.    POLAR STAR exceptional range and ice-class hull allow her to cruise to locations not frequented by most yachts.


Accommodations, dimensions & capacity, construction.

Complete the form below and one of our experienced sales brokers will be in touch soon.

Full Details

Other machinery.

  • Water makers: 2 x HEM reverse osmosis type: 23m³/day (Total: 46m³/day)
  • Water heaters: 3 x water heaters heated by immersion heaters. (Total cap: 1500 litres)

The domestic freshwater system consists of the following main parts:

  • 1 freshwater pressure tank units
  • 3 water heater with and immersion heater (2 x 10 kW) made of stainless steel
  • 2 freshwater feeding pump (one running, one standby)
  • 2 hot water circulation pump
  • 2 UV-sterilizing units
  • 1 silver ionization injection unit
  • 1 water softener
  • 5-micron Filters in addition to activated charcoal freshwater treatment prior to consumers


  • 400 V, 50 Hz, 3 phases for power consumers 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 phase for small equipment and lighting.
  • 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 phase for small portable domestic equipment in Owner’s and guests’ cabins/bathrooms and wheelhouse (via Converter 20 kW)
  • 24 V DC for monitoring, external communication, different nautical and other consumers

Emergency Switchboard for:

  • Emergency illumination
  • Navigation light
  • Navigation equipment
  • Radio system
  • Rescue boat crane
  • Steering gear
  • Firefighting pump
  • Provision refrigeration system
  • Battery charging units
  • High-fog system
  • Emergency generator room supply fan
  • One start air compressor
  • Alarm and monitoring system

Shore power:

  • 2x Shore connection cables of 30 m length stored on reel.
  • 2 TRAFOTEK transformer 125 kVA type 3 PUK 350/490
  • output: 400/230V 50Hz
  • input 380/400/420V/50Hz
  • 2 Shore connection box, fitted with fuses, voltmeter with selector switch, phase sequence indicator and reverse phase rotation switch to find the correct connection. Phase sequence is supervised for interlocking functions.

Batteries: Battery Chargers:

  • The following 24 V DC units are provided:
  • 2x 50A Rectifier/battery charger to charge the battery and supply the monitoring system and different consumers.
  • 1x 25A Charging Rectifier to charge the starting
  • battery of the emergency generator set.
  • 2x battery charger for SSB

Air Conditioning

  • 2 x Carrier chilled water units, each with 2x compressors
  • 3 x AC air handler units
  • Separate thermostats & fan controls for all accommodation areas
  • The bilge system is operated by 2 electrically driven centrifugal pumps and 2Bilge ejectors. The centrifugal pumps are also used as fire and ballast pumps.
  • The pressure side of the bilge ejector can also be operated by each fire pump.
  • The suction lines of the bilge ejectors are connected to the bilge main. Each watertight compartment has a suction strum box to the bilge main.
  • Additionally, the engine room is fitted with two direct suctions from the suction side of the fire/bilge pumps, and one emergency suction from one chilled water pump. One ejector is installed for draining chain locker and fore peak.

Galley & Laundry Equipment

  • Gaggenau large oven
  • MKN Salamander
  • Hoshizaki icemaker
  • Sharp microwave
  • Hobart Dishwasher FXLS-10A
  • Schott Ceran Induction top
  • 2x MKN programmable oven & steam oven
  • Walk in fridge
  • Foster Freezer Eco Pro G2
  • Walk in freezer
  • Walk in dry store.
  • Walk in Bonded Store
  • Walk in Fridge
  • Medical Locker
  • Hoshizaki ice maker
  • Undercounter Subzero Fridge & Freezer
  • Miele dishwasher
  • Nespresso Gemini coffee machine
  • Foster full height Fridge

Main Deck Pantry

  • 1x Etna Microwave
  • 1x Subzero TC700 Wine Fridge
  • Subzero Fridge & freezer

Owners Deck Pantry

  • Subzero 700BR drawer fridge
  • Sage Oracle Coffee Machine
  • Nespresso Coffee machine

Sundeck Deck Exterior

  • Subzero 700BR drawer fridges
  • BBQ Electric
  • Hoshizaki Ice Machine
  • 2x Miele Washing machines
  • 2x Miele professional tumble dryers
  • 1x Miele T5206 professional dryer
  • Pony Steam Iron
  • 1x Miele WS5425 professional washer
  • 1x Miele HM21-140 roller press

Waste Disposal

  • Refrigerated garbage store.
  • Vacuum Bag Compacter Machine

Communication Equipment

  • 2x Sailor 6222 VHF DSC radios
  • 1x Sailor 6301 MF/HF DSC radio
  • 1x GMDSS Alarm Panel Mini C, MF/HF, VHF
  • Motorola UHF Crew radios
  • 4 x Skanti leisure slave VHF
  • 1 x Sailor 6280 AIS with GPS
  • ICOM ICM23 VHF portables
  • Chrome plated Kahlenberg F-2 marine air horn system
  • 2 x Sailor 6006 Mini-C GMDSS Terminal
  • 1 x Sailor 6391 Navtex System
  • 2 x Thrane & Thrane Mini M sat phones
  • 1 x Phonetec intercom system
  • 1 x Marble MS421B BNWAS
  • Zöllner 5+S automatic Fog Signal Timer
  • 3 x McMurdo R2 GMDSS handheld VHF

Navigation Equipment

  • 7x 26’ Information display screens
  • 1x Consilum SD1-7 Elec trip log
  • 1x Furuno FCV-1200L LCD sounder
  • 1x Raytheon Skipper GDS 101 Sounder
  • 1x Raytheon NX 25 kW X Band Radar
  • 1x Raytheon NX 30 kW S Band Radar
  • 1x Transas 4000
  • 2 x Meteo LCD Weather Information Displays
  • 2x Simrad MX510 GPS
  • 1x Raytheon NX Nautoconning
  • 2x Raytheon ECDIS NX Workstations
  • 1x Raytheon Steering Control System
  • 2x Anschutz Nautopilot 5400 Subsystem
  • Wing Control Consoles Port & STB
  • Control levers propulsion systems
  • Remote control for the bow thruster (direction/speed)
  • Rudder control (tiller)
  • Bow thruster and stern thruster control.
  • Rudder angle indicator
  • Shaft revolution indicator
  • Horn button
  • Control panels are illuminated and fitted with dimmers.
  • Search Light controls.
  • Furuno Nav Display in Deckhead

Entertainment Equipment

  • The AV system is new as of a 2016 Refit by VBH Holland which is Crestron controlled.
  • All entertainment areas are linked to a Kaleidoscope
  • Movies on Demand System and Apple TV, Air Play
  • Removable screen with projector
  • Karaoke system
  • 4 x outdoor waterproof speakers
  • iPad controlled system.
  • iPad control for all systems
  • Exterior speakers in Jacuzzi area

Owner’s Cabin

  • Samsung 40» Flatscreen TV

Owner’s Lounge

  • Samsung 60» Flatscreen TV
  • Denon amplifier
  • iPad controlled system
  • Panasonic Blue-Ray player
  • Sonance surround sound speakers

Upper Aft Deck

  • Exterior speakers with separate controls

Guest 4 (Fwd Stb Guest)

  • BOSE DVD player
  • iPod docking station
  • BOSE surround sound with separate control
  • iPad control system

Guest 2 (Fwd Port Guest)

  • iPod docking station.

Guest 3 (Fwd double Guest)

  • iPod docking system
  • BOSE surround sound

Guest 1 (Fwd Double Guest)

Massage Room

  • Sonance surround sound
  • Sonance Exterior speakers
  • Samsung 40» TV
  • Sonance Surround sound

Tenders & Toys

  • 9.5 meter / 31’ Linx twin jet Tender - 2022
  • 7.6 meters / 25’ Zodiac N-ZO – 300hp Yamaha 2014
  • 2 x 1800cc Yamaha waverunners - 2015
  • 1 x Fliteboard Ultra
  • 1 x Tiwal inflatable Sailboat
  • 3 x Seabobs
  • 8 x SCUBA sets
  • 12 x snorkeling sets
  • 4 x water skis
  • 2 x wake boards
  • 2 x Wake skate boards
  • 1 x 6-man towing banana
  • 1 x Towing doughnut
  • 1 x Molecule towing tube
  • Bauer Junior ll-E (200/300 bar, 100 ltr./min) compressor
  • Various folding beach chairs and tables, with 2 x coal beach BBQ.
  • 4 x Standup Paddle boards
  • 2 x Inflatable Hobie Kayaks

Deck Equipment

  • 7-meter Yacht Tec telescopic aft Gangway
  • Marquip Seastair side boarding ladder
  • Lutz 4 deck elevator, 225Kg/3 persons, serving from Tank Deck to

Wheelhouse Deck

  • 2x TTS Gantry Cranes
  • 1x Yachttec foredeck Crane
  • Hydraulic shell service door
  • 2x 750kg Galvanized steel anchors, High Holding POOL type
  • 2x Electric Steen Anchor Capstans with dual speed
  • 2x Electric warping capstans with 2 speed (aft deck)
  • 2x Aft wind doors (port & Stb Owners Aft deck)
  • 14 pc stainless steel bollards (600 x 260mm base plate, height 350mm)
  • 16 pc fixed hawses abt. 400 x 250mm clear opening

Safety & Security Equipment

  • Marioff HI fog Sprinkler system
  • Minerva T2000 fire detection system
  • 4 x RFD 25 man life rafts
  • 4 x Fire Fighting BA sets
  • 2 x McMurdo S4 Rescue SART’s
  • 2 x McMurdo G5 GPS EPIRBS
  • 2 x Phillips Defib sets
  • 1 x Tempus IC Patient Monitor
  • 8 x Life rings
  • 1 x Zodiac 420 rescue tender with 40HP outboard
  • CONLAN Coded Crew security door

CCTV System: Cameras:

  • Engine room

Engineering Alarm Column System:

  • The light column is activated for the following indications:
  • General alarm
  • Engine alarm
  • Telephone alarm
  • Engine order telegraph alarm
  • Hi-Fog Fire System
  • 1 large light column, wall-mounted unit including:
  • 5 alarm indication fields
  • 1 rotating light lamp (red)
  • 1 rotating light lamp (amber)

Fire Detection System consist of:

  • 2x Fire alarm control panels
  • 117x Heat and/or optical smoke detectors in accommodation and machinery spaces
  • Manual alarm push buttons behind glass in the alleyways and by deckinterior doors

Bilge Alarm System:

  • Level switches for Bilge High Level monitoring are provided.
  • Second level Bilge Alarm in Engine room

General Alarm System:

  • An acoustic alarm system is installed to give alarms to all relevant areas.

Tank Level Indication:

  • High alarms in all tanks
  • Tank gauges in ECR
  • Additional fuel gauges at fuel manifold

Fire Extinguishing System:

  • Seawater Fire Extinguishing System
  • The 2 bilge pumps, which are also used as fire pumps, are installed in the engine room. There are local controls on both these pumps.
  • Near each fire valve a C-type fire hose and an adjustable nozzle is installed.
  • In accommodation five valves with D38-hose couplings and connected fire hoses with adjustable nozzle is installed.
  • Deck hydrants and hoses are located in the various deck storage lockers.
  • AFFF Applicator system. Usable with all onboard firehoses
  • Hi-fog sprinkler system fitted throughout all accommodation, engine room and technical spaces.
  • The galley exhaust ducting and deep fat fryer are fitted with Hi-Fog sprinkler system
  • Emergency fire pump, located in the bow thruster compartments separate from the two primary pumps.

Refit History

15-year Survey Items – 2019/2020

  • Main Engine and Generator rebuild
  • Hull Sandblasting and Antifouling
  • Bow and Stern Thruster service
  • Stabilizer Removal and Service
  • Shaft Removal and Alignment
  • Propeller removal and balancing
  • Rudder and Steering Gear Service
  • Electrical Switchboard Surveys and mega Testing
  • Bilge and Ballast Valve works
  • Hull Thickness Survey
  • Ballast Tank Sandblasting and Painting

2015/2016 Refit

  • Full vessel repaint in new colours, Awl grip Polar Star Brown, and Grey Stone.
  • Full Raytheon Bridge Upgrade including GMDSS Equipment
  • IT and AV, CCTV Upgrade
  • Exterior Cushion and Awning upgrade
  • Sauna Upgrade to Klafs
  • HUG Generator Exhaust replacement on all three Generators
  • Engine room repaint
  • Complete Interior Upgrade
  • Teak – Foredeck, Sundeck, Bridge Deck Aft and Swim Platform replaced
  • Sundeck remodelled to new layout with Carbon Fibre hard top and furniture
  • New Inclining and Stability Book issued
  • Crew Cabin upgrades – Bathrooms, Cupboards, Carpets
  • Lazarette and Dive Store Upgrade and Layout modifications
  • Beam Cranes re-built by TTS Germany
  • Hull extension on the swim Platform from 62.97 Meters to 65.17 Meters
  • Mist Cooling System Owners Deck Aft installed
  • Exterior LED Lighting upgrade
  • Interior Deckheads replaced – Lower Deck and Tank Deck
  • Auto Transfer Ballast System Installed
  • Exterior Furniture upgrade
  • Jacuzzi upgrade along with Sunbeds
  • Gym Equipment Upgrade – Technogym
  • Massage Room Upgrade from a Guest Office
  • MD Aft Wooden Slats added.
  • Exterior Deckheads replaced
  • Approved Ballast Water Treatment plant installed
  • Routine maintenance
  • Guest Cabin 2 – Modified to a Bunk bed four berth cabin as per photos sent
  • Galley Upgrade – Flooring, Cabinetry revamp
  • LOP Safety system upgrade on Generators
  • Generator Mounts replaced

2021/2022 Refit

  • Complete Exterior vessel repaint
  • Air-conditioning Upgrade – All Air handler units and control upgraded to ROMV
  • Exterior Cushion Fabric replacement
  • V-Sat dome upgrade
  • Starlink Installation
  • Custom 9.5 Meter Linx Tender Upgrade
  • Routine Maintenance
  • Anchor Chains replaced

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The Bering 65 is a classic yet refined raised pilothouse vessel. Constructed with a steel hull and an aluminum superstructure, this explorer vessel combines luxurious comfort and unwavering reliability along with sensible pricing. Powered by Cummins QSL 9 335 HP marine diesel engines, the Bering 65 has a top speed of 10 knots and a cruising speed of 8 knots.

The Bering 65 luxury yacht delivers an impressive autonomous range of more than 4000 nautical miles at cruising speed. The Bering 65 has an efficient fuel consumption of 25 GPH (95 LPH) at 10 knots with 1700 RPM.With 4,490 gallons (16,800 liters) of fuel, adventurers can enjoy thousands of miles of uninterrupted cruising, at a combined rate of 8 gallons (30 liters) per hour

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Brief Specifications

Bering 65 is a rugged and classical-looking steel yacht capable of any ocean crossing. She is quiet, solid, and leaves a graceful wake underway. Her displacement is over 224,800 lbs (102 mT). With 4,490 gallons (16,800 l) of fuel, you can cruise continuously for thousands of miles burning a combined 8 gallons (30 l) an hour at 8 knots.

Her interior is lavishly crafted with beautiful woodwork and a variety of counter, flooring, and upholstery selections.

The saloon features built-in seating on both sides with a large dinette to starboard. An entertainment center forward of the settees has a large flat-screen TV surrounded by hand-finished woods of your choosing. Large double aft doors can be opened when maximum ventilation is desired or when entertaining large groups. A staircase forward leads to the lower staterooms.

The full-width galley is just aft of the pilothouse steering room but on the same level. Refrigeration units and in-wall oven(s) are located off to the port side, along with drawer storage and an optional wine chiller. To the starboard side, you have a cooking surface, trash compactor, sink, dishwasher, and dry storage. This galley is bright and airy, thanks in part to the open bulkhead and its location above the saloon’s elevation.

Forward of the galley, the pilothouse is the command where most of the ship’s controls and displays are collected. From here, you can monitor all critical systems such as tank levels, engine metrics, and battery banks. This lower helm station is perfect for steering in inclement weather conditions. Wing doors lead to both port and starboard side decks. Extensive window placement on three sides provides complete forward and adjacent viewing of your surroundings. An L-shaped settee located aft of the helm chair is perfect for hanging out with the captain while underway and offers an alternative place to lounge and read if you wish some separation from the saloon.

The master stateroom can be located forward as a v-berth of aft, or as an amidships stateroom. Bering 65 is set up as a three-stateroom layout in its standard configuration, with each stateroom having its own bathroom.

The engine room houses the twin diesel engines in addition to many of the ship’s machinery components. Bering Yachts places great emphasis on minimizing noise and vibration coming from this space. The entire engine room is surrounded by acoustic paneling and heavy bulkhead insulation. The engine room’s aft is utility/storage space, perfect for such things as fenders, water-maker, dive compressor, and tool storage.

Access to the swim platform is available through either of the outboard stairwells in the cockpit. The aft platform is located just above the waterline to allow for easy access to your tender or water toys. Throughout the deck spaces, you will find intelligent and thoughtful touches such as the numerous mooring cleats, freeing ports to quickly clear the decks of green water, and ergonomic handrails for maximum security.

The covered cockpit provides additional outdoor living space regardless of weather conditions, be it intense tropical sun or a rainy day at anchor. The cockpit settee and table are perfect for outdoor dining, visiting, or just comfortably lounging. Covered side decks and tall bulwarks provide a very secure walkway to the Portuguese bridge and foredeck. Large storage lockers inside the Portuguese bridge are perfect for storing docklines, hoses, and equipment. Molded-in seating on the foredeck puts you out in front with a view second to none!

Bering 65’s covered flybridge helm station and seating area provide exceptional views whether underway or at anchor. With generously sized settees and the option to have any combination of refrigeration, outdoor grilling, stainless sink, etc., you can entertain guests with ease. The aft boat deck can easily accommodate a 4.2 meter tender, effortlessly launched and recovered with a hydraulic crane. The boat deck stairwell connects the covered cockpit, which means you don’t have to move through the interior spaces when you wish to head up to the upper deck after swimming or diving.

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rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

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Why Schools Need to Change Yes, We Can Define, Teach, and Assess Critical Thinking Skills

rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

Jeff Heyck-Williams (He, His, Him) Director of the Two Rivers Learning Institute in Washington, DC

critical thinking

Today’s learners face an uncertain present and a rapidly changing future that demand far different skills and knowledge than were needed in the 20th century. We also know so much more about enabling deep, powerful learning than we ever did before. Our collective future depends on how well young people prepare for the challenges and opportunities of 21st-century life.

Critical thinking is a thing. We can define it; we can teach it; and we can assess it.

While the idea of teaching critical thinking has been bandied around in education circles since at least the time of John Dewey, it has taken greater prominence in the education debates with the advent of the term “21st century skills” and discussions of deeper learning. There is increasing agreement among education reformers that critical thinking is an essential ingredient for long-term success for all of our students.

However, there are still those in the education establishment and in the media who argue that critical thinking isn’t really a thing, or that these skills aren’t well defined and, even if they could be defined, they can’t be taught or assessed.

To those naysayers, I have to disagree. Critical thinking is a thing. We can define it; we can teach it; and we can assess it. In fact, as part of a multi-year Assessment for Learning Project , Two Rivers Public Charter School in Washington, D.C., has done just that.

Before I dive into what we have done, I want to acknowledge that some of the criticism has merit.

First, there are those that argue that critical thinking can only exist when students have a vast fund of knowledge. Meaning that a student cannot think critically if they don’t have something substantive about which to think. I agree. Students do need a robust foundation of core content knowledge to effectively think critically. Schools still have a responsibility for building students’ content knowledge.

However, I would argue that students don’t need to wait to think critically until after they have mastered some arbitrary amount of knowledge. They can start building critical thinking skills when they walk in the door. All students come to school with experience and knowledge which they can immediately think critically about. In fact, some of the thinking that they learn to do helps augment and solidify the discipline-specific academic knowledge that they are learning.

The second criticism is that critical thinking skills are always highly contextual. In this argument, the critics make the point that the types of thinking that students do in history is categorically different from the types of thinking students do in science or math. Thus, the idea of teaching broadly defined, content-neutral critical thinking skills is impossible. I agree that there are domain-specific thinking skills that students should learn in each discipline. However, I also believe that there are several generalizable skills that elementary school students can learn that have broad applicability to their academic and social lives. That is what we have done at Two Rivers.

Defining Critical Thinking Skills

We began this work by first defining what we mean by critical thinking. After a review of the literature and looking at the practice at other schools, we identified five constructs that encompass a set of broadly applicable skills: schema development and activation; effective reasoning; creativity and innovation; problem solving; and decision making.

critical thinking competency

We then created rubrics to provide a concrete vision of what each of these constructs look like in practice. Working with the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning and Equity (SCALE) , we refined these rubrics to capture clear and discrete skills.

For example, we defined effective reasoning as the skill of creating an evidence-based claim: students need to construct a claim, identify relevant support, link their support to their claim, and identify possible questions or counter claims. Rubrics provide an explicit vision of the skill of effective reasoning for students and teachers. By breaking the rubrics down for different grade bands, we have been able not only to describe what reasoning is but also to delineate how the skills develop in students from preschool through 8th grade.

reasoning rubric

Before moving on, I want to freely acknowledge that in narrowly defining reasoning as the construction of evidence-based claims we have disregarded some elements of reasoning that students can and should learn. For example, the difference between constructing claims through deductive versus inductive means is not highlighted in our definition. However, by privileging a definition that has broad applicability across disciplines, we are able to gain traction in developing the roots of critical thinking. In this case, to formulate well-supported claims or arguments.

Teaching Critical Thinking Skills

The definitions of critical thinking constructs were only useful to us in as much as they translated into practical skills that teachers could teach and students could learn and use. Consequently, we have found that to teach a set of cognitive skills, we needed thinking routines that defined the regular application of these critical thinking and problem-solving skills across domains. Building on Harvard’s Project Zero Visible Thinking work, we have named routines aligned with each of our constructs.

For example, with the construct of effective reasoning, we aligned the Claim-Support-Question thinking routine to our rubric. Teachers then were able to teach students that whenever they were making an argument, the norm in the class was to use the routine in constructing their claim and support. The flexibility of the routine has allowed us to apply it from preschool through 8th grade and across disciplines from science to economics and from math to literacy.

argumentative writing

Kathryn Mancino, a 5th grade teacher at Two Rivers, has deliberately taught three of our thinking routines to students using the anchor charts above. Her charts name the components of each routine and has a place for students to record when they’ve used it and what they have figured out about the routine. By using this structure with a chart that can be added to throughout the year, students see the routines as broadly applicable across disciplines and are able to refine their application over time.

Assessing Critical Thinking Skills

By defining specific constructs of critical thinking and building thinking routines that support their implementation in classrooms, we have operated under the assumption that students are developing skills that they will be able to transfer to other settings. However, we recognized both the importance and the challenge of gathering reliable data to confirm this.

With this in mind, we have developed a series of short performance tasks around novel discipline-neutral contexts in which students can apply the constructs of thinking. Through these tasks, we have been able to provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate their ability to transfer the types of thinking beyond the original classroom setting. Once again, we have worked with SCALE to define tasks where students easily access the content but where the cognitive lift requires them to demonstrate their thinking abilities.

These assessments demonstrate that it is possible to capture meaningful data on students’ critical thinking abilities. They are not intended to be high stakes accountability measures. Instead, they are designed to give students, teachers, and school leaders discrete formative data on hard to measure skills.

While it is clearly difficult, and we have not solved all of the challenges to scaling assessments of critical thinking, we can define, teach, and assess these skills . In fact, knowing how important they are for the economy of the future and our democracy, it is essential that we do.

Jeff Heyck-Williams (He, His, Him)

Director of the two rivers learning institute.

Jeff Heyck-Williams is the director of the Two Rivers Learning Institute and a founder of Two Rivers Public Charter School. He has led work around creating school-wide cultures of mathematics, developing assessments of critical thinking and problem-solving, and supporting project-based learning.

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rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

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Critical Thinking Rubrics

2021 research-based critical thinking rubrics.

We're pleased to share these research-based Critical Thinking rubrics created in collaboration with the National Center for Improvement of Educational Assessment (Center for Assessment) , based on a comprehensive review of the literature about Critical Thinking. 

  • 2021 Critical Thinking Rubric: Grades K-2
  • 2021 Critical Thinking Rubric: Grades 3-5
  • 2021 Critical Thinking Rubric: Grades 6-12

These research-based rubrics are designed to provide useful, formative information that teachers can use to guide instruction and provide feedback to students on their overall performance. Students can also use the rubrics to reflect on their own learning. 

Looking for older versions of PBLWorks/BIE Critical Thinking Rubrics? You can also find them in the resources section on this page!

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Radical rubrics: implementing the critical and creative thinking general capability through an ecological approach

  • Open access
  • Published: 20 April 2022
  • Volume 50 , pages 729–745, ( 2023 )

Cite this article

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  • Dan Harris   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1138-8229 1 ,
  • Kathryn Coleman   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9885-9299 1 &
  • Peter J. Cook   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2942-1568 1  

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This article details how and why we have developed a flexible and responsive process-based rubric exemplar for teaching, learning, and assessing critical and creative thinking. We hope to contribute to global discussions of and efforts toward instrumentalising the challenge of assessing, but not standardising, creativity in compulsory education. Here, we respond to the key ideas of the four interrelated elements in the critical and creative thinking general capability in the Australian Curriculum learning continuum: inquiring; generating ideas, possibilities, actions; reflecting on thinking processes; and analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures. The rubrics, radical because they privilege process over outcome, have been designed to be used alongside the current NAPLAN tests in Years 5, 7 and 9 to build an Australian-based national creativity measure. We do so to argue the need for local and global measures of creativity in education as the first round of testing and results of the PISA Assessment of Creative Thinking approach and to contribute to the recognition of creative thinking (and doing) as a core twenty-first century literacy alongside literacy and numeracy.

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rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

Reimagining Creativity: Critically, Ethically, and Practically

rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

Creativity in 21st-century education

Lynn D. Newton & Douglas P. Newton

rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

Supporting Creative Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: Myths, Models, and Measures

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

This paper promotes the inclusion of critical and creative thinking in Initial Teacher Education (ITE)—and in turn, school-based education—through the development and use of process-based creative inquiry (PBCI) rubrics. We propose that creative inquiry rubrics are radical in their attention to teaching, learning and assessing processes over outcomes. We advocate for a process orientation as an antidote to the continuing standardisation of creativity measures, most recently seen in the incoming PISA creative thinking test (OECD, 2019 ). Within such a creative ecological approach (Harris, 2016a ), the use of PBCI rubrics is underpinned by curriculum as praxis (Grundy, 1987 ), where the practice of becoming a teacher is intertwined with the pre-service teachers' experience of being creative and critical thinking learners. We are also drawing on Freirean praxis pedagogy beliefs ( 1972 ), where reflection and immersion in the field connect theoretical underpinnings explored in initial teacher education courses with their practical implementation during professional experiences. The radical rubric approach aims to provide pre-service teachers with meaningful, authentic experiences in transforming creative and critical education so that they are equipped to design and develop meaningful, authentic critical and creative learning experiences in their future schools and classrooms. ITE programs are encouraged to integrate critical and creative inquiry activities into their cornerstone and capstone units with these radical rubrics to prepare graduates to contribute to the education sector's broader creative ecology. This approach is timely as we transition from pandemic pedagogies to endemic practices.

Positioning critical and creative thinking in initial teacher education

Australian ITE programs are complex programs focussed on learning about teaching practices through the study of curriculum and pedagogy. These programs are developed through well-defined accredited learning designs, underpinned by curriculum, policy, educational theories and pedagogical practices in conjunction with school-based work-integrated learning (WIL) placements to prepare pre-service teachers for success. To achieve this, ITE programs are responsive to multiple reforms: professional regulatory bodies such as the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), including recent shifts in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, and compliance standards that are enforced through state and commonwealth government authorities. Higher education providers must meet standards from authorities in their home state to enable graduates to register as teachers. University courses are mapped against program standards set by AITSL to ensure that pre-service teachers are classroom ready for the challenging and diverse educational contexts they will encounter.

Reforms and systemic stresses affect early-career graduate teachers' creativity and teaching practices. They are deterred by embedded school practices rather than developing and designing cross-cutting innovative, curious and collaborative future-focussed learning and teaching. Reform pressures are increased by systemic stressors that focus on performance, high-stakes assessment, national testing results and the need to meet national and international benchmarks. Over the last few years, Australian reforms have been directed by the following vision documents: Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group Report Action Now – Classroom Ready Teachers ( 2014 ); compulsory testing for teachers entering the profession, implemented as the Literacy and Numeracy Test for Initial Teacher Education (ACER, 2016 ); National Review of Teacher Registration (AITSL, 2018 ); and current Parliamentary reviews such as the Status of the Teaching Profession (Parliament of Australia, 2019 ). While ITE programs vary institutionally, they are all limited by insufficient time to effectively deliver a coherent curriculum that is “taught, assessed and practiced” (AITSL, 2019 ) alongside strategies for integrating new workplace and socio-cultural skills like creativity. The use of more flexible and process-focussed assessment tools in ITE (provided ITE programs offer adequate learner and teacher experience integrated into their units) can positively influence school change, simultaneously promoting creative environments in classrooms and across whole schools, once ITE graduates find employment.

Developments in the Australian context

In Australia, the impetus to foster creativity and innovation, and develop critical thinking skills and creative capacities was at the forefront of The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008 ). More than a decade on, this can still be seen as a significant turning point in the national agenda toward valuing creativity in Australian education, as indicated in the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration ( 2019 ). The need for critical and creative thinking is well established by ACARA ( 2016 ) as a general capability to be integrated across the curriculum continuum. AITSL ( 2019 ) identifies that critical and creative thinking is a teaching strategy for effective teaching and learning to foster confident, creative and innovative young Australians. These shifts signal the growing complexity of teacher responsibilities for developing teaching and assessment skills in critical and creative thinking to design learning for unknown futures.

National Australian reviews of creative and cultural education, and employment strategies (Flew & Cunningham, 2010 ; Harris, 2014 ; Harris, 2016a , 2016b a&b; Harris & Ammerman, 2016 ) have synthesised the interrelationship between education practice and the need to develop creative dispositions such as inquisitiveness, persistence, imagination and collaboration in student learning. It has been further argued within ITE programs and professional teacher/school practices that ecological perspectives via whole-school strategies and audits improve professional teacher practice (Richardson & Mishra, 2018 ). The Australian Government's Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training's Inquiry into innovation and creativity: Workforce for the new economy (Parliament of Australia, 2016 ) was created to ensure that “Australia's tertiary system—including universities and public and private providers of vocational education and training—can meet the needs of a future labour force focussed on innovation and creativity” (n.p). These developments in the Australian national context were mirrored globally (Beghetto, et al., 2014 ; Chiam, et al., 2014 ; DOET, 2014 ; Lassig, 2019 ) pre-pandemic and indicate a groundswell of attention to creativity education and work readiness that drives the need for further development in this area as we reimagine school and education for the future.

ITE programs synthesise both the Australian Curriculum and each state or territory's local curriculum adaptations (GWA, 2018 ; QLD Government, 2018 ; NESA, 2018 ; VCAA, 2016 ). Apart from providing the general blueprint, the Australian Curriculum provides seven general capabilities encompassing knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions. Critical and Creative Thinking is one of the capabilities through which students “learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems” (ACARA, 2016 ). Schools expect graduate teachers to deliver these capabilities through an integrated curriculum and inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary approaches, which we argue should be explicitly taught and commenced in ITE programs if they are to be successful. The co-authors have significant experience in teaching disciplinarily and have integrated these practices from an interdisciplinary epistemological approach, which we offer as part of the radicalising of the curriculum.

The ITE provider's challenge is to locate appropriate space within their complex teacher education programs to include all capabilities while scaffolding ways to design integrated learning and develop inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary knowledge and skills (Moss, et al., 2019 ). Including the capabilities as part of professional experience units provides practical examples of how to implement the capabilities and the associated pedagogical knowledge for learners in their future classrooms. We assert that engaging deeply in the capabilities within the discipline and curriculum units as both learners and teachers enables greater interaction of those capabilities through two-way pedagogies (Learning Policy Institute & Turnaround for Children, 2021 ) as pre-service teachers themselves learn through creative inquiry methods “to find out what students are thinking, puzzling over, feeling, and struggling with” (Darling-Hammond, 2016 , p. 86). A PBCI rubric that troubles perceived notions of creativity and presents an innovative approach to developing critical and creative thinking, appraisal and assessment qualities in ITE students would assist in achieving this transformation. All the general capabilities, including Critical and Creative Thinking, are noted on each state's syllabus websites, only some of which have been updated to align with the Australian Curriculum (all of which continue to be fluid documents). The states that have adopted these capabilities under the banner of learning across the curriculum, provide limited direction for inclusion outside of the content descriptions in some subjects and short elaborations on the ACARA site.

The inclusion of Critical and Creative Thinking in the Australian Curriculum has created an opportunity to further future-focussed learning that allows for transferable skills in a curriculum for both graduate teachers and their students. “In the Australian Curriculum, general capabilities are addressed through the learning areas and are identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning” (ACARA, 2016 ). Teaching a curriculum of the future requires skills and capabilities (Reeves, 2021 ), necessary in the “fourth industrial revolution” (Farrell & Corbel, 2017 ) and within post-pandemic pedagogies (McCarty, 2020 ) such as play, problem-solving, creative thinking, collaboration and digital skills. These transferable cross-cutting skills include a range of multimodal literacies (Walsh, 2010 ) and capabilities often referred to as “soft skills” (Lucas et al., 2013 ). But how do early-career teachers develop and maintain the ability to design disciplinary future-focussed creative learning and teaching? Where do early-career teachers develop their curriculum integration skills and capacities as practitioners? Arguably, these are acquired through practising over time and found in integrative disciplinary knowledge domains to support graduate teachers as learners as they traverse disciplinary and inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary skills and knowledge. The authors believe that this must begin in their initial teacher education.

Initial teacher education (ITE) and creative ecologies

A creative ecology approach (Harris, 2016a ) in ITE provides a space for learning about 'curriculum as praxis' (Grundy, 1987 ) and for Critical and Creative Thinking to be nurtured collectively and collaboratively rather than individually through a praxis pedagogy (Arnold & Mundy, 2020 ). Transferable, integrated and inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary skills are developed through inquiry-based learning (Magnussen et al., 2000 ) that allow for communication, creativity, problem solving, negotiation, teamwork, reflection, empathy and knowledge that cuts across disciplinary silos (Barnes & Shirley, 2007 ).

As a team of creative educators, we have worked with Harris' creative ecology ( 2016b ) to develop creative inquiry-based learning in a similar holistic, collaborative and creative methodology, focussed on building creative skills across educational sites and communities. This practice-related research is underpinned by Harris' body of work (for example, Harris, 2016b ) in fostering creativity in schools and communities. As such, we are led by a belief that pre-service and early-career teachers are central to generating and opening opportunities for creative ecologies within the teaching profession as they negotiate new epistemic cultures (Knorr Cetina, 2007 ). Our research is driven by a desire to create radical changes in education through a curriculum as praxis, starting within a critical praxis inquiry model of learning in ITE (Arnold, et al., 2012 ). As Grundy ( 1987 ) asserts, “the curriculum is not simply a set of plans to be implemented, but rather is constituted through an active process in which planning, acting and evaluating are all reciprocally related and integrated into the process” (p. 115). Pre-service teachers' ways of knowing about critical and creative thinking are bound by their experiences and skills in instructional strategies and assessment design within these disciplinary knowledge spaces rather than through practice as learners.

To intervene, we propose that Critical and Creative Thinking as a general capability is explicitly implemented within ITE programs through the praxis inquiry model of learning that enables pre-service teachers to make explicit links between practice and theory as both learners and teachers. We know it can be challenging for schools and teachers to implement this general capability, as critical thinking continues to predominate over creative thinking, often because of preconceived disciplinary differences. The essence of creative thinking is considered foundationally, often becoming an afterthought. Similarly, in ITE programs, rather than focussing on the design of the teacher education program and curriculum planning for explicit creative thinking possibilities, creativity and its possibilities remain dependent upon individual teacher educators' comfort or ability levels. Through praxis inquiry-based learning, we propose that our collaboratively developed PBCI rubric exemplar can serve as an agentic 'two-way' pedagogical tool for pre-service teachers as learners, and in-service teachers and students in schools to construct and organise knowledge about Critical and Creative Thinking. The PBCI rubrics become essential parts of the Creative Education Toolkit that connects to Harris' Creative Ecology model (Harris, 2016b ), including the Creativity Index, Whole-School Creativity Audit, Top 10 Creative skills and capacities and the Creative Ecology model (Fig.  1 ).

figure 1

Creative ecology model (Harris, 2016b )

The Mitchell Institute's ( 2016 ) position paper on teacher education reform mentions creativity once and offers no practical way forward, either in schools or in university ITE programs:

Teachers...are integral to developing the capabilities of young people. Not only do teachers need to be able to develop students to have inquiring minds that can think critically and creatively, but these learning dispositions are critical for teachers to possess. (p. 3)

The Practice Principles for Excellence in Teaching and Learning ( 2017 ) in Victorian schools posits that “Teachers design learning programs to explicitly build deep levels of thinking and application. This is evident when the teacher: models and develops students' critical, creative and higher order thinking skills” (p. 22). Our collaborative work is based on this premise.

It began pre-pandemic with designing and developing a PBCI rubric to support and enable ITE students to contribute positively to the creative ecologies in their creative educational ecosystems, including placement schools and future employment sites. By focussing on the inter-relationships between teaching, learning, practices and assessing for Critical and Creative Thinking, we can avoid definitional skirmishes that frequently occur in disciplinary debates and highlight creative thinking skills. Therefore, we make it clear that ITE programs need to demonstrate how they teach, practice and assess Critical and Creative Thinking through an inquiry-based learning model that can be integrated into and across all disciplinary cultures and practices in education (including in the goal of transdisciplinary work). Australian ITE programs should better reflect the changing global educational landscapes that recognise critical and creative thinking as central to learning, teaching and assessment to ensure success-ready graduates in the pandemic and endemic.

Our collaborative ecological approach offers ITE pre-service teachers experience in considering both the theoretical underpinnings of the Critical and Creative Thinking general capability and practical, implementable strategies for approaching teaching, learning and assessment on their professional experience placements to combat the conflation of critical with creative as problematic. Central to the Creative Education Toolkit are the radical rubrics, designed to align with the NAPLAN testing years, scaffolding the skills to participate in and contribute to, developing a robust creative ecology within their future schools.

Harris' creative ecologies

Harris' formulation of a creative ecology model includes five domains that address elements in all areas of learning communities. Following Amabile and et al.'s ( 1996 ) development of valid ecological measures of creativity in workplace contexts, the Harris creative ecology heuristic follows a desire for “assessment of this complex interaction between a person's creativity and the environment” (Harris, 2016b , p. 85), in contrast to traditional approaches to fostering creativity which remains fixed solely on the individual. By drawing on Amabile's Work Environment Inventory, which assesses workplace environmental factors that are most likely to influence the expression and development of creative ideas, the Harris creative ecology model lends itself to a more environmental, collective approach to fostering creativity within the school (or any) community. This includes students, teachers, school leaders, administrators, practices, built and natural environments in and beyond the classroom, and appears in social, cultural, material and virtual spaces where teachers and students interact for the purposes of learning.

Approaching creativity in education as an ecology (de Bruin & Harris, 2017 ; Harris, 2018 ) engages learners and teachers in practices stimulated by relationships and interactions within their micro, macro and meta-worlds (see Fig.  1 ). Creative thought results from the cognitive, physical, emotional and virtual interaction between people, problems, situations and experiences triggered through affordances that allow such connectivity (McWilliam, 2010 ). A creative ecology demands a systems approach in which all elements of the ecology work in relation to one another, none in isolation. Harris' creative ecologies and the associated literature offer a beneficial framework for designing adaptable Creative Educational Toolkits.

Traditional assessments of creativity in education were primarily rooted in individual tasks of giftedness, talent and psychometric measures (Eysenck, 1996 ; Mayer, 1999 ; Runco & Mraz, 1992 ; Torrance, 1974 ). However, the creative ecologies approach recognises how an education site's people, practices and places are intertwined and connected, working in, out of and through each other—creating the conditions for creativity to thrive, rather than focussing on individual attributes. These ecological connections and conditions enable and allow each entity within the ecosystem to develop through interactions and flows, permeating barriers and discarding false binaries of 'inside' and 'outside', 'individual' and 'collective' activities. One benefit of approaching thinking ecologically is that it provides a framework to support learners and learning, alongside beginning teachers, through attention to the whole-school site, system and community.

A creative ecology model in ITE prepares teachers as future ready by learning about creative practice through practice (Darling-Hammond, et al., 2005 ). Underpinned by Harris' ( 2016b ) Creativity and Education , the creative ecologies approach fosters creativity through an interconnected, iterative approach across professional and disciplinary communities within the school and throughout the sector. Implementing this approach at the beginning of ITE programs, where creative and critical teaching and learning becomes a component of pre-service teachers' core work, centres creativity training regardless of subject or developmental stage (early childhood, primary or secondary). This cyclic program design creates an evaluative feedback loop where pre-service teachers move into the schooling sector with evidence of teaching, practising and assessing the Critical and Creative Thinking general capability as learners themselves.

Because the ecology model requires collaboration to provide the right conditions for integrated creative change, authentic inquiry-based learning designs could be implemented during placements, with mentoring from experienced teachers and university lecturers. The “creative ecological approach to whole-school change” (Harris, 2016b , p. 8) models the ACARA speculative and integrative Critical and Creative Thinking learning continuum that begins with imagination and wonderment. The capacity to learn, create and innovate combined with the capacity to initiate and sustain change are attributes that transfer across contexts. By creating the conditions for teachers to continue to develop critical and creative thinking skills as learners through practice, they adapt to a continually changing and dynamic profession. We believe that developing pre-service teachers' creative and critical thinking skills and capacities through an ecological approach demands effective collaboration, enhancing the school community's unity and providing peer-sustained embedded professional development as part of everyday practice.

Radical Rubrics as important components of a diversified toolkit

We commenced this project as a group of practitioners and researchers: educators experienced in the field of Initial Teacher Education. In forging this collaborative laboratory ('collaboratory') for addressing creative assessment, it was necessary—as a starting point—that we held similar beliefs about the influence of ITE and shared values about the transformative power of creativity. A deep understanding of creativity in education was also common amongst the co-authors, all having employed creative approaches in education at various levels and across multiple learning areas. Approaching this work as both artists and educators was integral to understanding criticality and creativity, inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary and diverse approaches to creativity within the curriculum and beyond.

The remainder of this article explains how we as a collaboratory developed these radical rubrics against the Australian Curriculum General Capability against the USA Common Core Standards (CCSS) and the OECD Learning Framework 2030 (OECD, 2018 ), which share considerable overlap in identifying a need for fostering creative capacities.

While the Australian standards set grade-specific goals, they do not define how the standards should be taught or which materials should be used to support students, and the supports that effectively enhance creative and critical thinking through CCSS aligned Creativity & Innovation Rubrics (Kingston, 2018 ) have also been considered. The OECD Learning Framework 2030 (OECD, 2018 ) articulates learner qualities beyond epistemic and procedural knowledge, and cognitive and social skills. That schema reinforces the need to develop attitudes and values that (in preparing for 2030 and beyond) should enable learners to:

…think creatively, develop new products and services, new jobs, new processes and methods, new ways of thinking and living, new enterprises, new sectors, new business models and new social models. Increasingly, innovation springs not from individuals thinking and working alone, but through cooperation and collaboration with others to draw on existing knowledge to create new knowledge. The constructs that underpin the competency include adaptability, creativity, curiosity and open-mindedness. (OECD, 2018 , p. 5)

Our inquiry-based learning model integrates elements of the CSSS, the OECD Future of Education and Skills 2030 ( 2018 ) and the Australian Curriculum. We have developed and designed radical rubrics for teaching, practising and assessing processes, and to instrumentalise the key ideas of the four interrelated elements in the Critical and Creative Thinking learning continuum:

The radical rubric design was developed to be used in alternate years from the current NAPLAN tests in Years 5, 7 and 9. We link this system of creativity measurement to Australian NAPLAN tests to build an Australian national creativity measure alongside the literacy and numeracy measures in the current NAPLAN testing regime. In December 2022, the PISA 2021 Assessment of Creative Thinking results will be published. They will elevate the recognition of creative thinking (and doing) as a core literacy alongside literacy and numeracy, underlining further focus on creativity assessment at a global scale (Bouchie, 2019 ).

While we recognise that tensions exist across Australian states between implementing a national curricular capability into localised state agendas responsible for implementation, we have designed this overarching assessment strategy through PBCI rubrics (Fig.  2 ) useful for schools across the nation. The radical rubric and Creative Education Toolkit approach reflects our belief that the most effective way to design and develop Critical and Creative Thinking as an essential component of all learning in Australia is by aligning with yearly national assessment years via NAPLAN, and within ITE programs, where pre-service teachers develop knowledge and experiences of curriculum, pedagogy and policy—in addition to the PISA tests, which only occur every three years for member nations.

figure 2

Description of assessment rubric quadrants https://doi.org/10.26188/14736660

This radical rubric may be used as a capstone or foundational tool in ITE programs to foster assessment of creativity through practice; however, it can also be used individually or collectively within a school- or university-based ecological model. As Moss, et al. ( 2019 ) agree, the “general capabilities need to be targeted explicitly within the assessment criteria or learning goals when integrated approaches are used” (p. 35). By offering this more flexible approach to creativity assessment, this rubric allows students, pre-service teachers and early-career teachers to engage in meaningful creative inquiry-based learning that has both individual and collaborative benefits for the whole-school creative ecology.

The radical rubrics within the Creative Education Toolkit act as an iterative tool through which learners design, develop and review their inquiry. The rubric as an agentic tool allows the merging of learning experiences with ongoing engagement and collaboration. It offers learners (teacher educators and pre-service teachers and in-service teachers with students) to construct and organise knowledge themselves, engage in detailed research, inquiry, writing and analysis, and communicate effectively to audiences. Leadbeater (2008) argues that the successful reinvention of educational systems worldwide depends on transforming pedagogy and redesigning learning tasks. Promoting learner autonomy and creativity through inquiry learning within ITE programs is part of the solution. The Mitchell Institute ( 2016 ) note this approach:

…highlights the increasing duality of the modern teacher – that of both teacher and learner. It also suggests that 21st century teachers will be unable to navigate the modern educational workplace without the skills and dispositions that enable them to focus on their own learning and improvement. (p. 3)

Proposition: a model for teaching, practising and assessing Critical and Creative Thinking

The next section introduces a radical rubric that promotes teaching, practising and assessing creativity and critical thinking in ways that move beyond binaries such as 'standardised' and 'creative' instead of an imaginative, empathetic and inquiry-focussed interdisciplinary assessment tool. Our 'sleight-of-hand' in offering what may at first seem like a capitulation to standardised assessment is the kind of tool that can serve both or, as Maxine Greene argued, offer an imaginative approach that can work within simple standardisation “to combat standardardization” ( 1995 , p. 380). We focus on PBCI rubrics within the Creative Education Toolkit as common ways to explore learning design for authentic inquiry-based tasks. They can be designed to create a backward mapping of the task and offer learners a way into the processes and reflective practices involved in ideation, problem posing, visioning and wondering about things rather than focussing on a preconceived product of learning or the content. They support “teachers who recognize the important role of imagination and creative play in the learning process, [and] want to include these higher-level thought processes as part of authentic assessment” (Young, 2009 , p. 74). Our rubric design offers teachers new ways to reinforce creative practices and processes learned in ITE programs that can be supplemented by ongoing professional development in schools where creativity and critical thinking become observable, teachable and assessable.

Rubrics such as this exemplar can be deployed in Years 6, 8 and 10 (the interstitial years between NAPLAN testing in Years 5, 7 and 9) as part of a networked ecological approach to fostering creativity in educational settings (Harris, 2018 ). Using flexible and adaptable process rubrics allows teachers and learners to negotiate creative practices across various needs and sites. The ecological approach to creativity education (reflected in the radical rubric) invites teachers, students and school leaders to foster creativity in a whole environment but interconnected manner across the entire ecosystem within which learning takes place. Teachers traditionally interpret curriculum documents and apply pedagogies to facilitate learning via the transmission of knowledge and engagement in specific activities to that subject and particularly to that individual teacher. This rubric's interconnected and cross-curricular application allows teachers and students to find connectivities between and across domains and dismantle the siloed information transfer systems that occur within prevailing strict procedural frameworks of content, resources, timelines and assessment/reporting. As a learning and teaching tool, a PBCI rubric such as ours allows for the mental and psychological linking across a whole school that enables students, teachers and leaders to think and act on ideas and situations (Cowan, 2006 ). As an assessment tool, the radical rubric design stimulates imagination, ideation, wondering and possibility thinking, and synthesis and integrative thinking that enables all ecology members to contribute to each school's unique creative needs and resources.

The rubric is described in Fig.  2 ( https://doi.org/10.26188/14736660 ) and provides the framework for implementation. The rubric relies on the inclusion of four quadrants consistent with those specified in the General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum and cross-referenced with the criteria in the OECD study, “Fostering and assessing creativity and critical thinking in education” (Vincent-Lancrin, et al., 2019 ). The quadrants are inquiring, generating, analysing and reflecting. The descriptors offer clarification of how the quadrant would be demonstrated in practice. The description deliberately remains free of learning area content to encourage transferability across disciplines.

Figure  3 ( https://doi.org/10.26188/14736576 ) provides an example of the achievement standards for the first quadrant of inquiring. We have developed the achievement standards as suggested indicators of student levels of learning. There are three criteria presented against the standards of emerging, expected and working beyond. Each descriptor provides examples of the levels of learning achieved and outlined with an active verb to allow an evaluator to decide the level of achievement and generate appropriate feedback loops. In the context of this creative inquiry rubric, the evaluation can be conducted by a teacher or student (peer) and completed at various stages within a task.

figure 3

Assessment rubric standards and descriptors https://doi.org/10.26188/14736576

The rubric provides illustrations of practice that enable teaching staff to consider potential implementation ideas. Figure  4 ( https://doi.org/10.26188/14730429 ) provides an example of a Year 8 Geography task. The example provides a brief description of the assessable task and how it would align topic areas and content description. The content description in focus is derived from the Australian Curriculum. The connection to the Critical and Creative Thinking general capability is also included to highlight the existing policy documents and how these may be taught, assessed and practiced. Further description of what the achievement standard might look like is included to guide the correlation between the PBCI rubric, the task and the demonstrable critical and creative skills being assessed. Naturally, additional criteria could be incorporated based on the assessable task's localised school and class needs.

figure 4

Illustration of practice 1 (year 8 geography) https://doi.org/10.26188/14730429

The second illustration of practice is included in Fig.  5 ( https://doi.org/10.26188/14736843 ). It emphasises how the PBCI rubric might be used for peer learning and review. In this example, an accessible task from the learning area of Health and Physical Education is outlined within a specified focus on content found in the Australian Curriculum. Again, the relevant information about the connections to the general capability of Critical and Creative Thinking is outlined. In this example, the suggestion is that the rubric be used midway through the learning experience, with other students as the peer reviewers. The annotation on the rubric offers further exploration of what may be required to achieve a particular level of learning (in this example, 'working beyond').

figure 5

Illustration of practice 2 (year 8 health and physical education) https://doi.org/10.26188/14736843

Conclusions and implications for ITE

This paper has explored how and why our collaboratory developed a flexible and responsive PBCI rubric exemplar for teaching, learning and assessing creativity to work within Harris' Creative Education Toolkit. We began this work by asking, 'how do early career teachers develop and maintain the ability to design interdisciplinary future-focussed creative learning and teaching? Where do early career teachers develop curriculum integration skills and capacities as practitioners?' This is an important time to share our praxis approach as educators worldwide face new post-pandemic challenges requiring teachers to design creative, critical, often-digital, inquiry-based learning encounters for young people. Being radical, creative and critical through a critical praxis model that challenges teaching, learning and assessment education, rather than standardising creativity in education, is needed now more than ever. Our radical rubric design provides a model for cultivating and assessing critical and creative thinking across the ecology. This kind of active feedback-feedforward loop through an inquiry model, also understood as curriculum “as praxis” (Grundy, 1987 , p. 15) contributes to better practices across ITE through two-way pedagogies. Ultimately, the approach encourages ground-up creative changes in education policy.

The approach outlined in this paper suggests moving creative change in schools and ITE programs away from teacher-driven activities to co-activating problem posing as a collaborative creative practice that initiates and sustains learning through creative inquiry. The radical rubric design effectively and efficiently initiates and cultivates Critical and Creative Thinking as a general capability in ITE (and by extension into schools and classrooms). The model explored in this article is just one of the Toolkit rubrics that we propose as a set of radical interventions, which together establish more processual and accessible creative practices in learners and across whole-school creative ecologies. As such, ITE holds the potential to activate substantial and sustainable critical and creative thinking development in pre-service and early-career teachers and apply generational mindset change in all learners, by effectively developing and evolving creative communities of practice.

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Richardson, C., & Mishra, P. (2018). Learning environments that support student creativity: Developing the SCALE. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27 , 45–54.

Runco, M. A., & Mraz, W. (1992). Scoring divergent thinking tests using total ideational output and a creativity index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52 , 213–221.

Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group Report. (2014). Action now—Classroom ready teachers. action_now_classroom_ready_teachers_accessible-(1)da178891b1e86477b58fff00006709da.pdf (aitsl.edu.au)

Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance tests of creative thinking . Personnel Press.

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Harris, D., Coleman, K. & Cook, P.J. Radical rubrics: implementing the critical and creative thinking general capability through an ecological approach. Aust. Educ. Res. 50 , 729–745 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-022-00521-8

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Critical Thinking Rubric

This rubric is designed to evaluate the extent to which undergraduate students evaluate claims, arguments, evidence, and hypotheses.

Results will be used for program improvement purposes only.

Download the Critical Thinking Rubric (PDF version)

  • Office of Curriculum, Assessment and Teaching Transformation >
  • Teaching at UB >
  • Course Development >
  • Design Your Course >
  • Designing Assessments >

Evaluating student performance for feedback and fairness.

On this page:

The importance of rubrics.

A rubric is an assessment tool that includes:

  • Criteria: The categories or characteristics that you value in the task or assignment.
  • Performance levels: A detailed description of the levels of quality for each criterion.

When grading an assignment, the rater goes through each criterion and determines which performance level was achieved. These scores are then added together to create an overall performance evaluation. Written feedback can also be given to the student to explain why the assignment fell within the indicated performance level.

Rubrics have several benefits for instructors and students:

Benefits for Instructors

  • Improves fairness and objectivity in grading.
  • Adds guidance for grading complex assignments.
  • Offers clearer feedback to students (see Feedback ).
  • Creates consistency across assignments and increases interrater reliability.
  • Can be used repeatedly.
  • Can easily be adjusted and adapted.

Benefits for Students

  • Sets clear expectations for assignments.
  • Guides students to reach learning outcomes.
  • Offers the opportunity for peer and self-evaluation, supporting self-reflection.
  • Provides students with effective feedback.

While rubrics require an investment to create and calibrate, the long-term savings in time and the improved quality of feedback and objectivity in grading makes them a valuable resource to include in your course.

Using Rubrics in Your Course

Types of rubrics.

The following are different types of rubrics you may consider using depending on the type of assignment or situation.

Used to quantitatively evaluate knowledge, attributes or skills while providing detailed feedback about strengths and weaknesses. Includes explicit descriptions of criteria required to meet the level of quality present for each dimension.

Used when assessing a performance or attribute as well as for grading assignments quickly. Holistic rubrics don’t necessarily provide in depth feedback to students.

Used to identify whether criteria are present. For example, a student receives a point value of 1 for each component that is presented and a 0 for each one that is missing. A total score is then calculated. You can also allot more than one point or partial credit for each component.

Higher Order Thinking Skills

It is often difficult to create concrete measurable criteria to assess higher order thinking skills. For example, what makes one argument more critical than another? The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) has created a variety of rubrics to assess student learning in the following areas:

Applying Rubrics

Rubrics are useful when determining if a grade is subjective or assignments are open-ended. Rubric use is especially beneficial when:

  • Assignments do not have a single correct answer, such as essays, projects or videos.
  • Consistency between raters is required, such as multiple graders or grading over time.
  • Transparency and fairness are paramount, such as practice interviews with students.
  • Feedback is provided on a large scale, such as grading presentations or projects.
  • Reflectiveness of the assessment is important, such as when scores impact student future performances.

One impactful way to apply rubrics is to guide students. Consider using a rubric as follows:

  • Share the rubric before the assignment begins and have a discussion with students about its categories and criteria. Answer any additional questions that may arise.
  • Review an assignment example or exemplar with the class and think aloud while using the rubric as an evaluation tool.  Ask students to help grade the example in each category and justify their responses with evidence. Support students through this process through modeling, scaffolding and feedback.
  • After students are comfortable using the rubric, have them give peer feedback while also practicing independent critical thinking skills. Both peer and instructor feedback can be used formatively to improve the assignment.
  • Use the rubric as a summative assessment tool to evaluate student work and provide transparency in grading and feedback. This can help students understand the rationale for their assignment’s assessment and grade.

The following rubric workbook has compiled important information for creating and using rubrics in your course:

When you are done choosing or creating rubrics continue:

or move on to:

Additional resources

Third party tools to help you create your own rubric.

An excellent guide to help you design a high-quality rubric.

Rubric examples for different disciplines and topics.

Additional templates and examples to help with creating a rubric.

Examples of rubrics created by professionals organized by grade level and subject.

Free rubric building tool that is great for project-based learning activities.

Guide for developing several types of rubrics.

Examples of rubrics organized by assignment type: paper, project, presentations and participation.

Use of single point rubrics to help students goal set and assess their own achievement.

Provides a different explanation of rubric times and gives authentic examples for each type.

Explains why communicating assessment with students can help improve teaching and learning.

  • OSCQR – Standard #46 Explains the importance and benefits of using rubrics in your course.
  • Fink, L. D. (2013). Creating significant learning outcomes: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Jossey-Bass. Pages 99-102
  • Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design . Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Outcomes and Rubrics

RIT faculty developed sixteen General Education Student Learning Outcomes aligned to the General Education Framework. Each of RIT’s General Education Student Learning Outcomes has a corresponding rubric. All rubrics were developed by RIT Faculty Teams.


hands typing on a laptop keyboard with another person in the background holding a pencil

Express oneself effectively in common college-level written forms

  • View PDF Rubric 1 RUBRIC Express oneself effectively in written forms REV 2023.pdf

two pencils laid cross over each other on a blank notebook page

Revise and improve written products

  • View PDF Rubric 2 RUBRIC Revise and improve written products REV 2019.pdf

a person standing in front of a podium while others sit and clap

Express oneself effectively in presentations, either in American English or American Sign Language

  • View PDF Rubric 3 RUBRIC Express oneself effectively in presentations REV 2023 fillable.pdf

two books stacked on a table next to an open book with a blury book shelf in the background

Demonstrate comprehension of information and ideas accessed through reading

  • View PDF Rubric 4 RUBRIC Demonstrate comprehension accessed through reading REV 2019.pdf

Critical Thinking

a person sitting on top of a stack of books using a laptop. The background is filled with hand drawn doodles and ideas

Use relevant evidence gathered through accepted scholarly methods and properly acknowledge sources of information

  • View PDF Rubric 5 RUBRIC Use Relevant Evidence REV 2019.pdf

A sign with the word "FRACKING" covered up by a red circle with a slash through it

Analyze or construct arguments considering their premises, assumptions, contexts, and conclusions, and anticipating counterarguments

  • View PDF Rubric 6 RUBRIC Analyze or Construct Arguments REV 2019_0.pdf

a number of flowcharts and documents on a desk with a notebook and pen on top

Reach sound conclusions based on logical analysis of evidence

  • View PDF Rubric 7 RUBRIC Reach Sound Conclusions REV 2019.pdf

people standing around a bulletin board on a table attaching sticky notes over papers

Demonstrate creative or innovative approaches to assignments or projects

  • View PDF Rubric 8 RUBRIC Demonstrate Creative Innovative REV 2019.pdf


a statue of the blindfolded lady of justice holding up scales

Ethical: Identify contemporary ethical questions and relevant positions

  • View PDF Rubric 9 RUBRIC Identify Contemporary Ethical Questions REV 2019 01.27.2020.pdf

wooden totem poles colorfully painted

Artistic: Interpret and evaluate artistic expression considering the cultural context in which it was created

  • View PDF Rubric 10 RUBRIC Interpret and Evaluate Artistic Expression REV 2019.pdf

a number of international flags hanging from flag poles with a blue sky background

Global: Examine connections among the world’s populations

  • View PDF Rubric 11 RUBRIC Examine Connections among World Populations REV 10.2019.pdf

an elevated view of a large number of people walking

Social: Analyze similarities and differences in human social experiences and evaluate the consequences

  • View PDF Rubric 12 RUBRIC Analyze Human Similarities and Differences REV 2019.pdf

a black and white atom over a number of mathematical equations

Natural Science Inquiry: Demonstrate knowledge of basic principles and concepts of one of the natural sciences

  • View PDF Rubric 13 RUBRIC Demonstrate Knowledge of Science REV 2019.pdf

glass beakers with an eyedropper dropping clear liquid into them

Scientific Principles: Apply methods of scientific inquiry and problem solving to contemporary issues and scientific questions

  • View PDF Rubric 14 RUBRIC Apply Methods of Scientific Inquiry REV 2019.pdf

a black board with equations charts and graphs on it

Mathematical: Comprehend and evaluate mathematical or statistical information

  • View PDF Rubric 15 RUBRIC Comprehend and Evaluate Math REV 2019.pdf

a scientific calculator and pencil on a notebook

Mathematical: Perform college-level mathematical operations or apply statistical techniques

  • View PDF Rubric 16 RUBRIC Perform College Level Math REV 2019.pdf

rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

OPAIR publishes 2022-23 Program Learning Outcomes Annual Report

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. – Penn State’s Office of Planning, Assessment, and Institutional Research (OPAIR) recently released the annual Program Learning Outcomes report for 2022-23 . The document presents insights gleaned from assessment reports submitted by more than 600 major and certificate programs across the University. Notably, submission rates soared to an unprecedented 88% in 2023, signaling a significant milestone in the advancement of Penn State’s assessment culture.

Key highlights from the report include:

  • Focus on Key Learning Objectives: The report underscores a strong emphasis on foundational knowledge, application of knowledge and skills, critical thinking and communication in the assessed learning objectives.
  • Emphasis on Direct Evidence: The majority (75%) of assessments rely on direct evidence of learning, requiring students to showcase their knowledge, skills, and abilities.
  • Continuous Improvement: A holistic review revealed that 15% of programs have enhanced the quality of their assessments compared to the previous year, demonstrating a commitment to continuous improvement.
  • Performance Targets: Impressively, most programs (84%) successfully met their established performance targets. For those that fell short, 79% have proactively developed specific plans or strategies to address challenges and enhance performance in the future.

This report celebrates the achievements and progress made in assessment practices and serves as a roadmap for further enhancing educational excellence and student success at Penn State. By systematically measuring what students know and can do upon completion of a program, educators gain valuable insights into the effectiveness of their teaching methods, the program’s curriculum design, and student learning experiences. This process enables faculty to identify areas where students may be struggling and to implement targeted interventions to support their academic growth.

Program learning assessment is also instrumental in improving educational programs. By collecting evidence of student learning outcomes, faculty and administrators can identify strengths and opportunities for growth within a program that can inform decisions about curriculum revisions, instructional strategies, and resource allocation. Continuous assessment allows institutions to adapt and evolve their programs to meet the changing needs of students and the demands of the workforce. Further, making this process transparent through annual reporting helps to foster trust and confidence in a Penn State education.

While all program faculty have a role in assessment, each major and certificate has one or more designated Assessment Leaders who steer and shepherd the assessment process in their program.

“Within Penn State’s assessment framework, our assessment leaders serve in a pivotal role,” said Betty Harper, assistant vice provost for assessment. “Their unwavering commitment of time and energy to enhancing student learning is paramount. Without their dedication, Penn State’s assessment process would be impossible.”

Program assessment reports are due annually on June 30 and include assessment findings from the prior academic year and assessment plans for the coming year. Additional information about Penn State’s required assessment process is available on the Program Learning Assessment webpage.

The full report and an executive summary infographic are available on OPAIR’s website .

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rubrics assessing critical thinking skills

Critical thinking is a habit of mind characterized by the comprehensive exploration of issues, ideas, artifacts, and events before accepting or formulating an opinion or conclusion. Framing Language This rubric is designed to be transdisciplinary, reflecting the recognition that success in all disciplines requires habits o f inquiry and ...

Microsoft PowerPoint - Designing Rubrics to Assess Critical Thinking.pptx. 3:00. Traditional assessment measures such as multiple choice questions are a form of selected response measures designed for knowledge recall and sometimes for decision‐making from a selection of options. In such measures, students are asked to think critically in the ...

Process skills such as critical thinking and information processing are commonly stated outcomes for STEM undergraduate degree programs, but instructors often do not explicitly assess these skills in their courses. Students are more likely to develop these crucial skills if there is constructive alignment between an instructor's intended learning outcomes, the tasks that the instructor and ...

Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The Key to Professional Competencies. A tool kit. Sarasota, FL: American Accounting Association. Skills in the Scoring Manual for the Reflective Judgment Interview Rubrics Based on a Model of Open-Ended Problem Solving Skills: Steps for Better Thinking Rubric Steps for Better Thinking Competency Rubric

We then created rubrics to provide a concrete vision of what each of these constructs look like in practice. Working with the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning and Equity (SCALE), we refined these rubrics to capture clear and discrete skills.. For example, we defined effective reasoning as the skill of creating an evidence-based claim: students need to construct a claim, identify ...

The utility of the VALUE rubrics is to position learning at all undergraduate levels within a basic framework of expectations such that evidence of learning can by shared nationally through a common dialog and understanding of student success. The Critical Thinking VALUE Rubric is available for free download in Word and PDF formats.

2021 Critical Thinking Rubric: Grades 3-5. 2021 Critical Thinking Rubric: Grades 6-12. These research-based rubrics are designed to provide useful, formative information that teachers can use to guide instruction and provide feedback to students on their overall performance. Students can also use the rubrics to reflect on their own learning.

Development of critical thinking skills is an important outcome in education, though pedagogies to both promote and evaluate critical thinking present challenges and vary greatly. ... Reynders G., Lantz J., Ruder S. M., Stanford C. L., Cole R. S. (2020). Rubrics to assess critical thinking and information processing in undergraduate STEM ...

This article details how and why we have developed a flexible and responsive process-based rubric exemplar for teaching, learning, and assessing critical and creative thinking. We hope to contribute to global discussions of and efforts toward instrumentalising the challenge of assessing, but not standardising, creativity in compulsory education. Here, we respond to the key ideas of the four ...

Code §4.28(2021)). Further, the Association of American Colleges & Universities' Critical Thinking VALUE Rubric defines critical thinking as "a habit of the mind characterized by the comprehensive exploration of issues, ideas, artifacts, and events before accepting or formulating an opinion or conclusion.".

thinking is the art of analyzing and assessing thinking with a view to improving it" (p. 287), and therefore, evaluation is an integral aspect of critical thinking skill development.

Critical thinking is one of the most frequently discussed higher order skills, believed to play a central role in logical thinking, decision making, and problem solving (Butler, 2012; Halpern, 2003).It is also a highly contentious skill in that researchers debate about its definition; its amenability to assessment; its degree of generality or specificity; and the evidence of its practical ...

Critical Thinking Rubric. This rubric is designed to evaluate the extent to which undergraduate students evaluate claims, arguments, evidence, and hypotheses. Results will be used for program improvement purposes only. Download the Critical Thinking Rubric (PDF version) Course: Instructor: Student: Date: Component.

The Creative Thinking VALUE Rubric is intended to help faculty assess creative thinking in a broad range of transdisciplinary or interdisciplinary work samples or collections of work. The rubric is made up of a set of attributes that are common to creative thinking across disciplines. Examples of work samples or collections of work that could ...

rubric designed to assess the critical thinking skills of students across graduate programmes in the given sample university. As part of this project, faculty members from d ifferent departments ...

The process skills discussed in this work were defined as follows: Critical thinking is analyzing, evaluating, or synthesizing relevant information to form an argument or reach a conclusion supported with evidence. Information processing is evaluating, interpreting, and manipulating or transforming information.

Rubrics have also been used to assess critical thinking and information processing skills in various chemistry laboratory settings, with reported benefits of both providing a means to assess ...

rubric designed to assess the critical thinking skills of students across graduate programmes in the given sample university. As part of this project, faculty members from different departments of the sample university (i.e. education, medicine and nursing) along with the universitys Networks of Quality, Teaching and

Student's mechanical writing skills - good or bad - are independent of (though perhaps correlated to) their critical thinking skills; guard against exceptionally poor or exceptionally good writing unduly influencing your assessment of the critical thinking skills exhibited, per the rubric. Also, a student may not necessarily organize their

After students are comfortable using the rubric, have them give peer feedback while also practicing independent critical thinking skills. Both peer and instructor feedback can be used formatively to improve the assignment. Use the rubric as a summative assessment tool to evaluate student work and provide transparency in grading and feedback.

Background Process skills such as critical thinking and information processing are commonly stated outcomes for STEM undergraduate degree programs, but instructors often do not explicitly assess these skills in their courses. Students are more likely to develop these crucial skills if there is constructive alignment between an instructor's intended learning outcomes, the tasks that the ...

A valid and reliable rubric is crucial for critical thinking assessment since it can be used to evaluate critical thinking accurately and provide students with diagnostic data for improving their critical thinking. However, the existing rubrics for assessing critical thinking in English argumentative writing suffer from four striking flaws.

To assess student statements as an outcome of a critical thinking exercise, an analytic scoring rubric was devised (Table).A rubric is a matrix with a concise description of expectations at different levels of accomplishment and an organized approach to evaluating the conclusion of a multistep exercise. 8 Analytic rubrics feature multiple scales that provide diagnostic information useful to ...

Revise and improve written products. View PDF Rubric. Express oneself effectively in presentations, either in American English or American Sign Language. View PDF Rubric. Demonstrate comprehension of information and ideas accessed through reading. View PDF Rubric. RIT faculty developed sixteen General Education Student Learning Outcomes aligned ...

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. - Penn State's Office of Planning, Assessment ... application of knowledge and skills, critical thinking and communication in the assessed learning objectives. Emphasis on Direct Evidence: The majority (75%) of assessments rely on direct evidence of learning, requiring students to showcase their knowledge, skills ...

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introduce your topic in research

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How to Write a Research Paper Introduction (with Examples)

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction (with Examples)

The research paper introduction section, along with the Title and Abstract, can be considered the face of any research paper. The following article is intended to guide you in organizing and writing the research paper introduction for a quality academic article or dissertation.

The research paper introduction aims to present the topic to the reader. A study will only be accepted for publishing if you can ascertain that the available literature cannot answer your research question. So it is important to ensure that you have read important studies on that particular topic, especially those within the last five to ten years, and that they are properly referenced in this section. 1 What should be included in the research paper introduction is decided by what you want to tell readers about the reason behind the research and how you plan to fill the knowledge gap. The best research paper introduction provides a systemic review of existing work and demonstrates additional work that needs to be done. It needs to be brief, captivating, and well-referenced; a well-drafted research paper introduction will help the researcher win half the battle.

The introduction for a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

  • Present your research topic
  • Capture reader interest
  • Summarize existing research
  • Position your own approach
  • Define your specific research problem and problem statement
  • Highlight the novelty and contributions of the study
  • Give an overview of the paper’s structure

The research paper introduction can vary in size and structure depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or is a review paper. Some research paper introduction examples are only half a page while others are a few pages long. In many cases, the introduction will be shorter than all of the other sections of your paper; its length depends on the size of your paper as a whole.

  • Break through writer’s block. Write your research paper introduction with Paperpal Copilot

Table of Contents

What is the introduction for a research paper, why is the introduction important in a research paper, craft a compelling introduction section with paperpal. try now, 1. introduce the research topic:, 2. determine a research niche:, 3. place your research within the research niche:, craft accurate research paper introductions with paperpal. start writing now, frequently asked questions on research paper introduction, key points to remember.

The introduction in a research paper is placed at the beginning to guide the reader from a broad subject area to the specific topic that your research addresses. They present the following information to the reader

  • Scope: The topic covered in the research paper
  • Context: Background of your topic
  • Importance: Why your research matters in that particular area of research and the industry problem that can be targeted

The research paper introduction conveys a lot of information and can be considered an essential roadmap for the rest of your paper. A good introduction for a research paper is important for the following reasons:

  • It stimulates your reader’s interest: A good introduction section can make your readers want to read your paper by capturing their interest. It informs the reader what they are going to learn and helps determine if the topic is of interest to them.
  • It helps the reader understand the research background: Without a clear introduction, your readers may feel confused and even struggle when reading your paper. A good research paper introduction will prepare them for the in-depth research to come. It provides you the opportunity to engage with the readers and demonstrate your knowledge and authority on the specific topic.
  • It explains why your research paper is worth reading: Your introduction can convey a lot of information to your readers. It introduces the topic, why the topic is important, and how you plan to proceed with your research.
  • It helps guide the reader through the rest of the paper: The research paper introduction gives the reader a sense of the nature of the information that will support your arguments and the general organization of the paragraphs that will follow. It offers an overview of what to expect when reading the main body of your paper.

What are the parts of introduction in the research?

A good research paper introduction section should comprise three main elements: 2

  • What is known: This sets the stage for your research. It informs the readers of what is known on the subject.
  • What is lacking: This is aimed at justifying the reason for carrying out your research. This could involve investigating a new concept or method or building upon previous research.
  • What you aim to do: This part briefly states the objectives of your research and its major contributions. Your detailed hypothesis will also form a part of this section.

How to write a research paper introduction?

The first step in writing the research paper introduction is to inform the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening statement. The second step involves establishing the kinds of research that have been done and ending with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to address. Finally, the research paper introduction clarifies how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses. If your research involved testing hypotheses, these should be stated along with your research question. The hypothesis should be presented in the past tense since it will have been tested by the time you are writing the research paper introduction.

The following key points, with examples, can guide you when writing the research paper introduction section:

  • Highlight the importance of the research field or topic
  • Describe the background of the topic
  • Present an overview of current research on the topic

Example: The inclusion of experiential and competency-based learning has benefitted electronics engineering education. Industry partnerships provide an excellent alternative for students wanting to engage in solving real-world challenges. Industry-academia participation has grown in recent years due to the need for skilled engineers with practical training and specialized expertise. However, from the educational perspective, many activities are needed to incorporate sustainable development goals into the university curricula and consolidate learning innovation in universities.

  • Reveal a gap in existing research or oppose an existing assumption
  • Formulate the research question

Example: There have been plausible efforts to integrate educational activities in higher education electronics engineering programs. However, very few studies have considered using educational research methods for performance evaluation of competency-based higher engineering education, with a focus on technical and or transversal skills. To remedy the current need for evaluating competencies in STEM fields and providing sustainable development goals in engineering education, in this study, a comparison was drawn between study groups without and with industry partners.

  • State the purpose of your study
  • Highlight the key characteristics of your study
  • Describe important results
  • Highlight the novelty of the study.
  • Offer a brief overview of the structure of the paper.

Example: The study evaluates the main competency needed in the applied electronics course, which is a fundamental core subject for many electronics engineering undergraduate programs. We compared two groups, without and with an industrial partner, that offered real-world projects to solve during the semester. This comparison can help determine significant differences in both groups in terms of developing subject competency and achieving sustainable development goals.

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introduce your topic in research

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You can use the same process to develop each section of your article, and finally your research paper in half the time and without any of the stress.

The purpose of the research paper introduction is to introduce the reader to the problem definition, justify the need for the study, and describe the main theme of the study. The aim is to gain the reader’s attention by providing them with necessary background information and establishing the main purpose and direction of the research.

The length of the research paper introduction can vary across journals and disciplines. While there are no strict word limits for writing the research paper introduction, an ideal length would be one page, with a maximum of 400 words over 1-4 paragraphs. Generally, it is one of the shorter sections of the paper as the reader is assumed to have at least a reasonable knowledge about the topic. 2 For example, for a study evaluating the role of building design in ensuring fire safety, there is no need to discuss definitions and nature of fire in the introduction; you could start by commenting upon the existing practices for fire safety and how your study will add to the existing knowledge and practice.

When deciding what to include in the research paper introduction, the rest of the paper should also be considered. The aim is to introduce the reader smoothly to the topic and facilitate an easy read without much dependency on external sources. 3 Below is a list of elements you can include to prepare a research paper introduction outline and follow it when you are writing the research paper introduction. Topic introduction: This can include key definitions and a brief history of the topic. Research context and background: Offer the readers some general information and then narrow it down to specific aspects. Details of the research you conducted: A brief literature review can be included to support your arguments or line of thought. Rationale for the study: This establishes the relevance of your study and establishes its importance. Importance of your research: The main contributions are highlighted to help establish the novelty of your study Research hypothesis: Introduce your research question and propose an expected outcome. Organization of the paper: Include a short paragraph of 3-4 sentences that highlights your plan for the entire paper

Cite only works that are most relevant to your topic; as a general rule, you can include one to three. Note that readers want to see evidence of original thinking. So it is better to avoid using too many references as it does not leave much room for your personal standpoint to shine through. Citations in your research paper introduction support the key points, and the number of citations depend on the subject matter and the point discussed. If the research paper introduction is too long or overflowing with citations, it is better to cite a few review articles rather than the individual articles summarized in the review. A good point to remember when citing research papers in the introduction section is to include at least one-third of the references in the introduction.

The literature review plays a significant role in the research paper introduction section. A good literature review accomplishes the following: Introduces the topic – Establishes the study’s significance – Provides an overview of the relevant literature – Provides context for the study using literature – Identifies knowledge gaps However, remember to avoid making the following mistakes when writing a research paper introduction: Do not use studies from the literature review to aggressively support your research Avoid direct quoting Do not allow literature review to be the focus of this section. Instead, the literature review should only aid in setting a foundation for the manuscript.

Remember the following key points for writing a good research paper introduction: 4

  • Avoid stuffing too much general information: Avoid including what an average reader would know and include only that information related to the problem being addressed in the research paper introduction. For example, when describing a comparative study of non-traditional methods for mechanical design optimization, information related to the traditional methods and differences between traditional and non-traditional methods would not be relevant. In this case, the introduction for the research paper should begin with the state-of-the-art non-traditional methods and methods to evaluate the efficiency of newly developed algorithms.
  • Avoid packing too many references: Cite only the required works in your research paper introduction. The other works can be included in the discussion section to strengthen your findings.
  • Avoid extensive criticism of previous studies: Avoid being overly critical of earlier studies while setting the rationale for your study. A better place for this would be the Discussion section, where you can highlight the advantages of your method.
  • Avoid describing conclusions of the study: When writing a research paper introduction remember not to include the findings of your study. The aim is to let the readers know what question is being answered. The actual answer should only be given in the Results and Discussion section.

To summarize, the research paper introduction section should be brief yet informative. It should convince the reader the need to conduct the study and motivate him to read further. If you’re feeling stuck or unsure, choose trusted AI academic writing assistants like Paperpal to effortlessly craft your research paper introduction and other sections of your research article.

1. Jawaid, S. A., & Jawaid, M. (2019). How to write introduction and discussion. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, 13(Suppl 1), S18.

2. Dewan, P., & Gupta, P. (2016). Writing the title, abstract and introduction: Looks matter!. Indian pediatrics, 53, 235-241.

3. Cetin, S., & Hackam, D. J. (2005). An approach to the writing of a scientific Manuscript1. Journal of Surgical Research, 128(2), 165-167.

4. Bavdekar, S. B. (2015). Writing introduction: Laying the foundations of a research paper. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63(7), 44-6.

Paperpal is a comprehensive AI writing toolkit that helps students and researchers achieve 2x the writing in half the time. It leverages 21+ years of STM experience and insights from millions of research articles to provide in-depth academic writing, language editing, and submission readiness support to help you write better, faster.  

Get accurate academic translations, rewriting support, grammar checks, vocabulary suggestions, and generative AI assistance that delivers human precision at machine speed. Try for free or upgrade to Paperpal Prime starting at US$19 a month to access premium features, including consistency, plagiarism, and 30+ submission readiness checks to help you succeed.  

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How to write an effective introduction for your research paper

Last updated

20 January 2024

Reviewed by

However, the introduction is a vital element of your research paper. It helps the reader decide whether your paper is worth their time. As such, it's worth taking your time to get it right.

In this article, we'll tell you everything you need to know about writing an effective introduction for your research paper.

  • The importance of an introduction in research papers

The primary purpose of an introduction is to provide an overview of your paper. This lets readers gauge whether they want to continue reading or not. The introduction should provide a meaningful roadmap of your research to help them make this decision. It should let readers know whether the information they're interested in is likely to be found in the pages that follow.

Aside from providing readers with information about the content of your paper, the introduction also sets the tone. It shows readers the style of language they can expect, which can further help them to decide how far to read.

When you take into account both of these roles that an introduction plays, it becomes clear that crafting an engaging introduction is the best way to get your paper read more widely. First impressions count, and the introduction provides that impression to readers.

  • The optimum length for a research paper introduction

While there's no magic formula to determine exactly how long a research paper introduction should be, there are a few guidelines. Some variables that impact the ideal introduction length include:

Field of study

Complexity of the topic

Specific requirements of the course or publication

A commonly recommended length of a research paper introduction is around 10% of the total paper’s length. So, a ten-page paper has a one-page introduction. If the topic is complex, it may require more background to craft a compelling intro. Humanities papers tend to have longer introductions than those of the hard sciences.

The best way to craft an introduction of the right length is to focus on clarity and conciseness. Tell the reader only what is necessary to set up your research. An introduction edited down with this goal in mind should end up at an acceptable length.

  • Evaluating successful research paper introductions

A good way to gauge how to create a great introduction is by looking at examples from across your field. The most influential and well-regarded papers should provide some insights into what makes a good introduction.

Dissecting examples: what works and why

We can make some general assumptions by looking at common elements of a good introduction, regardless of the field of research.

A common structure is to start with a broad context, and then narrow that down to specific research questions or hypotheses. This creates a funnel that establishes the scope and relevance.

The most effective introductions are careful about the assumptions they make regarding reader knowledge. By clearly defining key terms and concepts instead of assuming the reader is familiar with them, these introductions set a more solid foundation for understanding.

To pull in the reader and make that all-important good first impression, excellent research paper introductions will often incorporate a compelling narrative or some striking fact that grabs the reader's attention.

Finally, good introductions provide clear citations from past research to back up the claims they're making. In the case of argumentative papers or essays (those that take a stance on a topic or issue), a strong thesis statement compels the reader to continue reading.

Common pitfalls to avoid in research paper introductions

You can also learn what not to do by looking at other research papers. Many authors have made mistakes you can learn from.

We've talked about the need to be clear and concise. Many introductions fail at this; they're verbose, vague, or otherwise fail to convey the research problem or hypothesis efficiently. This often comes in the form of an overemphasis on background information, which obscures the main research focus.

Ensure your introduction provides the proper emphasis and excitement around your research and its significance. Otherwise, fewer people will want to read more about it.

  • Crafting a compelling introduction for a research paper

Let’s take a look at the steps required to craft an introduction that pulls readers in and compels them to learn more about your research.

Step 1: Capturing interest and setting the scene

To capture the reader's interest immediately, begin your introduction with a compelling question, a surprising fact, a provocative quote, or some other mechanism that will hook readers and pull them further into the paper.

As they continue reading, the introduction should contextualize your research within the current field, showing readers its relevance and importance. Clarify any essential terms that will help them better understand what you're saying. This keeps the fundamentals of your research accessible to all readers from all backgrounds.

Step 2: Building a solid foundation with background information

Including background information in your introduction serves two major purposes:

It helps to clarify the topic for the reader

It establishes the depth of your research

The approach you take when conveying this information depends on the type of paper.

For argumentative papers, you'll want to develop engaging background narratives. These should provide context for the argument you'll be presenting.

For empirical papers, highlighting past research is the key. Often, there will be some questions that weren't answered in those past papers. If your paper is focused on those areas, those papers make ideal candidates for you to discuss and critique in your introduction.

Step 3: Pinpointing the research challenge

To capture the attention of the reader, you need to explain what research challenges you'll be discussing.

For argumentative papers, this involves articulating why the argument you'll be making is important. What is its relevance to current discussions or problems? What is the potential impact of people accepting or rejecting your argument?

For empirical papers, explain how your research is addressing a gap in existing knowledge. What new insights or contributions will your research bring to your field?

Step 4: Clarifying your research aims and objectives

We mentioned earlier that the introduction to a research paper can serve as a roadmap for what's within. We've also frequently discussed the need for clarity. This step addresses both of these.

When writing an argumentative paper, craft a thesis statement with impact. Clearly articulate what your position is and the main points you intend to present. This will map out for the reader exactly what they'll get from reading the rest.

For empirical papers, focus on formulating precise research questions and hypotheses. Directly link them to the gaps or issues you've identified in existing research to show the reader the precise direction your research paper will take.

Step 5: Sketching the blueprint of your study

Continue building a roadmap for your readers by designing a structured outline for the paper. Guide the reader through your research journey, explaining what the different sections will contain and their relationship to one another.

This outline should flow seamlessly as you move from section to section. Creating this outline early can also help guide the creation of the paper itself, resulting in a final product that's better organized. In doing so, you'll craft a paper where each section flows intuitively from the next.

Step 6: Integrating your research question

To avoid letting your research question get lost in background information or clarifications, craft your introduction in such a way that the research question resonates throughout. The research question should clearly address a gap in existing knowledge or offer a new perspective on an existing problem.

Tell users your research question explicitly but also remember to frequently come back to it. When providing context or clarification, point out how it relates to the research question. This keeps your focus where it needs to be and prevents the topic of the paper from becoming under-emphasized.

Step 7: Establishing the scope and limitations

So far, we've talked mostly about what's in the paper and how to convey that information to readers. The opposite is also important. Information that's outside the scope of your paper should be made clear to the reader in the introduction so their expectations for what is to follow are set appropriately.

Similarly, be honest and upfront about the limitations of the study. Any constraints in methodology, data, or how far your findings can be generalized should be fully communicated in the introduction.

Step 8: Concluding the introduction with a promise

The final few lines of the introduction are your last chance to convince people to continue reading the rest of the paper. Here is where you should make it very clear what benefit they'll get from doing so. What topics will be covered? What questions will be answered? Make it clear what they will get for continuing.

By providing a quick recap of the key points contained in the introduction in its final lines and properly setting the stage for what follows in the rest of the paper, you refocus the reader's attention on the topic of your research and guide them to read more.

  • Research paper introduction best practices

Following the steps above will give you a compelling introduction that hits on all the key points an introduction should have. Some more tips and tricks can make an introduction even more polished.

As you follow the steps above, keep the following tips in mind.

Set the right tone and style

Like every piece of writing, a research paper should be written for the audience. That is to say, it should match the tone and style that your academic discipline and target audience expect. This is typically a formal and academic tone, though the degree of formality varies by field.

Kno w the audience

The perfect introduction balances clarity with conciseness. The amount of clarification required for a given topic depends greatly on the target audience. Knowing who will be reading your paper will guide you in determining how much background information is required.

Adopt the CARS (create a research space) model

The CARS model is a helpful tool for structuring introductions. This structure has three parts. The beginning of the introduction establishes the general research area. Next, relevant literature is reviewed and critiqued. The final section outlines the purpose of your study as it relates to the previous parts.

Master the art of funneling

The CARS method is one example of a well-funneled introduction. These start broadly and then slowly narrow down to your specific research problem. It provides a nice narrative flow that provides the right information at the right time. If you stray from the CARS model, try to retain this same type of funneling.

Incorporate narrative element

People read research papers largely to be informed. But to inform the reader, you have to hold their attention. A narrative style, particularly in the introduction, is a great way to do that. This can be a compelling story, an intriguing question, or a description of a real-world problem.

Write the introduction last

By writing the introduction after the rest of the paper, you'll have a better idea of what your research entails and how the paper is structured. This prevents the common problem of writing something in the introduction and then forgetting to include it in the paper. It also means anything particularly exciting in the paper isn’t neglected in the intro.

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How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

Learn how to write a research paper introduction with expert guidance.

Farzana Zannat Mou

Last updated on Mar 13th, 2024

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

When you click on affiliate links on QuillMuse.com and make a purchase, you won’t pay a penny more, but we’ll get a small commission—this helps us keep up with publishing valuable content on QuillMuse.  Read More .

We write different types of papers for academic and professional reasons. Research paper is one of the most important papers and it is different from other papers. There are different types of rules for writing a research paper , the first part is the introduction. Through this article, we will try to tell you how to write an introduction for a research paper beautifully.

  • Introduction

Before starting to write any papers, especially research papers one should know how to write a research paper introduction. The introduction is intended to guide the reader from a general subject to a specific area of study. It establishes the context of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information on the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of a thesis, question, or research problem, Briefly explaining your rationale, your methodological approach, highlight the potential findings your research may reveal, and describe the remaining structure of the paper.

A well-written introduction is imperative since, essentially, you never get a second chance to form a great first impression. The opening passage of your paper will give your audience their introductory impression, almost the rationale of your contention, your composing style, the general quality of your investigation, and, eventually, the legitimacy of your discoveries and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression on the readers. While a brief, engaging, and well-written introduction will begin your readers off considering profoundly your expository abilities, your writing style, and your research approach. 

Tips for Writng an Introduction in Research Paper

How to Write Introduction in Research Paper

Introduce your topic

This is a significant part of how to write an introduction for a research paper. The first task of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it is interesting or important. This is usually done with a strong opening hook.

A hook is a strong opening sentence that conveys relevance to your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a powerful statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will make readers wonder about your topic.

Describe the context

This introduction varies depending on your approach to your writing. In a more argumentative article, you will explore the general context here. In a more empirical paper, this is a great place to review previous research and determine how your research fits together.

Start briefly, and narrow down

The first thing of a research paper introduction is, to briefly describe your broad parts of research, then narrow in on your specific focus. This will help position your research topic within a broader field, making the work accessible to a wider audience than just experts in your field.

A common mistake when writing a research paper introduction is trying to fit everything in at once. Instead, pace yourself and present each piece of information in the most logical order the reader can understand. Typically, this means starting with the big picture and then gradually getting more specific with the details.

For your research paper introduction, you should first present an overview of the topic and then focus on your specific paper. This “funnel” structure naturally includes all the necessary parts of what should be included in a research paper introduction, from context to appropriate or research gaps and finally to relevance.

State Objective and Importance

Papers abandoned because they “do not demonstrate the importance of the topic” or “lack a clear motivation” often miss this point. Say what you want to achieve and why your readers should want to know whether you achieved it or not.

Quote generously

Once you have focused on the specific topic of your research, you should detail the latest and most relevant literature related to your research. Your literature review should be comprehensive but not too long. Remember, you are not writing a review. If you find your introduction is too long or has too many citations, a possible solution is to cite journal articles, rather than cite all of the individual articles that have been summarised in the journal.

Do not Keep it broad

Try to avoid lengthy introductions. A good target is between 500 and 1,000 words, although checking the magazine’s guidelines and back issues will provide the clearest guidance.

The introduction is not lengthy or detailed; rather, they are initiating actions. Introductions are best when they get to the point: save the details in the body of the document, where they belong.

The most important point of a research paper introduction is that they are clear and easy to understand. Writing at length can be distracting and even make your point harder to understand, so cut out unnecessary words and try to express things in simple terms that everyone understands. understandable.

Check journal condition

Many journals have specific assertions in their author instructions. For example, a maximum of one word may be stated, or instructions may require specific content, such as a supposition statement or a summary of your key findings.

Write the introduction to your research paper at the last moment

Your introduction may appear first in a research paper, but the general advice is to wait to write it until everything else has been written. This makes it easier for you to summarize your article because at this point you know everything you’re going to say. This also eliminates the urge to include everything in the introduction because you don’t want to forget anything.

Additionally, it is especially helpful to write an introduction after your research paper is finished. The introduction and conclusion of a research paper have similar topics and often reflect the structure of each topic. Writing the conclusion is also generally easier thanks to the pace created by writing the rest of the paper, and the conclusion can guide you in writing the introduction.

Make your introduction narrative style

Although not always appropriate for formal writing, using a narrative style in the introduction of your research paper can do a lot to engage readers and engage them emotionally. A 2016 study found that in some articles, using narrative strategies improved how often they were cited in other articles. Narrative style involves making the paper more personal to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

  • Use first-person pronouns (I, we, my, our) to show that you are the narrator expressing emotions and feelings in the text setting up the scene. 
  • Describe the times and locations of important events to help readers visualize them. 
  • Appeal to the reader’s morality, sympathy, or urgency as a persuasive tactic. Again, this style will not be appropriate for all research paper introductions, especially those devoted to scientific research. 

However, for more informal research papers and especially essays, this style can make your writing more interesting or at least interesting, perfect for making readers excited right from the beginning of the article.

Use the CARS model

British scientist John Swales developed a method called the CARS model to “generate a search space” in the introduction. Although intended for scientific papers, this simple three-step structure can be used to outline the introduction to any research paper.

Explain the background of your topic, including previous research. Explain that information is lacking in your topic area or that current research is incomplete.

Explain how your research “fills in” missing information about your topic. 

the research findings and providing an overview of the structure of the rest of the paper, although this does not apply to all research papers, especially those Unofficial documents.

Six Essential Elements of How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

1. topic overview.

Start with a general overview of your topic. Refine your outline until you address the specific topic of your article. Next, mention any questions or concerns you have about the case. Note that you will address these in the article.

2. Previous research

Your introduction is the perfect place to review other findings about your topic. Includes both old and modern scholars. This general information shows that you are aware of previous research. It also presents previous findings to those who may not have that expertise.

3. A justification for your article

Explain why your topic needs to be discussed now. If possible, connect it to current issues. Additionally, you can point out problems with old theories or reveal gaps in current research. No matter how you do it, a good reason will keep readers interested and demonstrate why they should read the rest of your article.

4. Describe the method you used

Tell about your processes to make your writing more trustworthy. Identify your goals and the questions you will answer. Reveal how you conducted the research and describe how you measured the results. Also, explain why you made the important choices.

5. A thesis statement

Your main introduction should end with a thesis statement. This statement summarises the ideas that will run throughout your entire research paper. It must be simple and clear.

6. An outline

It is an adequate idea of how to write an introduction for a research paper. 

The introduction usually ends with an overview. Your layout should quickly present what you plan to cover in the following sections. Think of it as a road map, guiding readers to the end of your article.

What is the purpose of the introduction in a research paper, and why is it considered crucial?

The purpose of the introduction in a research paper is to guide the reader from a general subject to a specific area of study. It establishes the context of the research by summarizing current understanding, stating the purpose of the work, explaining the rationale and methodological approach, highlighting potential findings, and describing the paper’s structure. It’s considered crucial because it forms the reader’s first impression and sets the tone for the rest of the paper.

How can I effectively use a hook to engage readers in my research paper introduction?

Using a hook, such as an interesting fact, a powerful statement, a question, or a brief anecdote, can effectively engage readers in your research paper introduction. A hook captures the reader’s attention and makes them curious about your topic, encouraging them to continue reading.

How long the introduction should be in a research paper?

While there’s no strict word count, a good target for a research paper introduction is between 500 and 1,000 words, although you should check the specific guidelines provided by the journal you’re submitting to. It’s recommended to write the introduction after the rest of the paper has been completed. This way, you have a comprehensive understanding of your research, making it easier to summarize and guide your readers effectively.


These are the important tips and tricks on how to write an introduction for a research paper properly. If you maintain these rules we believe that you will be able to write an excellent introduction in your research paper. 

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I found the step-by-step guide really helpful. Looking forward to implementing these tips in my next academic endeavor. Thanks for sharing!


Thank you for your positive feedback! We’re thrilled to hear that you found the guide helpful. If you have any more questions or need further assistance with your research paper, feel free to ask. Best of luck with your academic endeavors!

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion With Example

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion With Example 

The conclusion is the last part of every research paper or document. Without a conclusion, your research paper will not be complete. A few days ago, I got some comments on our website about how to write a research paper conclusion. Some are interested in knowing about research paper conclusion

We write different types of papers for academic and professional reasons. Research paper is one of the most important papers and it is different from other papers. There are different types of rules for writing a research paper, the first part is the introduction. Through this article, we will try

How to Write a Research Paper in MLA Format

MLA Format Research Paper: Examples & 9 Steps Guide

Writing a research paper in MLA format requires attention to detail and allegiance to particular rules set by the Modern Language Association. From formatting the title page to citing sources accurately, MLA format is fundamental for academic success. Let’s start by synthesizing the key components and steps included in making

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How to Write a Research Introduction

Last Updated: December 6, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 2,651,171 times.

The introduction to a research paper can be the most challenging part of the paper to write. The length of the introduction will vary depending on the type of research paper you are writing. An introduction should announce your topic, provide context and a rationale for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Well-written introductions set the tone for the paper, catch the reader's interest, and communicate the hypothesis or thesis statement.

Introducing the Topic of the Paper

Step 1 Announce your research topic.

  • In scientific papers this is sometimes known as an "inverted triangle", where you start with the broadest material at the start, before zooming in on the specifics. [2] X Research source
  • The sentence "Throughout the 20th century, our views of life on other planets have drastically changed" introduces a topic, but does so in broad terms.
  • It provides the reader with an indication of the content of the essay and encourages them to read on.

Step 2 Consider referring to key words.

  • For example, if you were writing a paper about the behaviour of mice when exposed to a particular substance, you would include the word "mice", and the scientific name of the relevant compound in the first sentences.
  • If you were writing a history paper about the impact of the First World War on gender relations in Britain, you should mention those key words in your first few lines.

Step 3 Define any key terms or concepts.

  • This is especially important if you are attempting to develop a new conceptualization that uses language and terminology your readers may be unfamiliar with.

Step 4 Introduce the topic through an anecdote or quotation.

  • If you use an anecdote ensure that is short and highly relevant for your research. It has to function in the same way as an alternative opening, namely to announce the topic of your research paper to your reader.
  • For example, if you were writing a sociology paper about re-offending rates among young offenders, you could include a brief story of one person whose story reflects and introduces your topic.
  • This kind of approach is generally not appropriate for the introduction to a natural or physical sciences research paper where the writing conventions are different.

Establishing the Context for Your Paper

Step 1 Include a brief literature review.

  • It is important to be concise in the introduction, so provide an overview on recent developments in the primary research rather than a lengthy discussion.
  • You can follow the "inverted triangle" principle to focus in from the broader themes to those to which you are making a direct contribution with your paper.
  • A strong literature review presents important background information to your own research and indicates the importance of the field.

Step 2 Use the literature to focus in on your contribution.

  • By making clear reference to existing work you can demonstrate explicitly the specific contribution you are making to move the field forward.
  • You can identify a gap in the existing scholarship and explain how you are addressing it and moving understanding forward.

Step 3 Elaborate on the rationale of your paper.

  • For example, if you are writing a scientific paper you could stress the merits of the experimental approach or models you have used.
  • Stress what is novel in your research and the significance of your new approach, but don't give too much detail in the introduction.
  • A stated rationale could be something like: "the study evaluates the previously unknown anti-inflammatory effects of a topical compound in order to evaluate its potential clinical uses".

Specifying Your Research Questions and Hypothesis

Step 1 State your research questions.

  • The research question or questions generally come towards the end of the introduction, and should be concise and closely focused.
  • The research question might recall some of the key words established in the first few sentences and the title of your paper.
  • An example of a research question could be "what were the consequences of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Mexican export economy?"
  • This could be honed further to be specific by referring to a particular element of the Free Trade Agreement and the impact on a particular industry in Mexico, such as clothing manufacture.
  • A good research question should shape a problem into a testable hypothesis.

Step 2 Indicate your hypothesis.

  • If possible try to avoid using the word "hypothesis" and rather make this implicit in your writing. This can make your writing appear less formulaic.
  • In a scientific paper, giving a clear one-sentence overview of your results and their relation to your hypothesis makes the information clear and accessible. [10] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • An example of a hypothesis could be "mice deprived of food for the duration of the study were expected to become more lethargic than those fed normally".

Step 3 Outline the structure of your paper.

  • This is not always necessary and you should pay attention to the writing conventions in your discipline.
  • In a natural sciences paper, for example, there is a fairly rigid structure which you will be following.
  • A humanities or social science paper will most likely present more opportunities to deviate in how you structure your paper.

Research Introduction Help

introduce your topic in research

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Use your research papers' outline to help you decide what information to include when writing an introduction. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 1
  • Consider drafting your introduction after you have already completed the rest of your research paper. Writing introductions last can help ensure that you don't leave out any major points. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

introduce your topic in research

  • Avoid emotional or sensational introductions; these can create distrust in the reader. Thanks Helpful 50 Not Helpful 12
  • Generally avoid using personal pronouns in your introduction, such as "I," "me," "we," "us," "my," "mine," or "our." Thanks Helpful 31 Not Helpful 7
  • Don't overwhelm the reader with an over-abundance of information. Keep the introduction as concise as possible by saving specific details for the body of your paper. Thanks Helpful 24 Not Helpful 14

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Publish a Research Paper

  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185916
  • ↑ https://www.aresearchguide.com/inverted-pyramid-structure-in-writing.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/PlanResearchPaper.html
  • ↑ https://dept.writing.wisc.edu/wac/writing-an-introduction-for-a-scientific-paper/
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
  • ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178846/

About This Article

Megan Morgan, PhD

To introduce your research paper, use the first 1-2 sentences to describe your general topic, such as “women in World War I.” Include and define keywords, such as “gender relations,” to show your reader where you’re going. Mention previous research into the topic with a phrase like, “Others have studied…”, then transition into what your contribution will be and why it’s necessary. Finally, state the questions that your paper will address and propose your “answer” to them as your thesis statement. For more information from our English Ph.D. co-author about how to craft a strong hypothesis and thesis, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper

Sumalatha G

Writing an introduction for a research paper is a critical element of your paper, but it can seem challenging to encapsulate enormous amount of information into a concise form. The introduction of your research paper sets the tone for your research and provides the context for your study. In this article, we will guide you through the process of writing an effective introduction that grabs the reader's attention and captures the essence of your research paper.

Understanding the Purpose of a Research Paper Introduction

The introduction acts as a road map for your research paper, guiding the reader through the main ideas and arguments. The purpose of the introduction is to present your research topic to the readers and provide a rationale for why your study is relevant. It helps the reader locate your research and its relevance in the broader field of related scientific explorations. Additionally, the introduction should inform the reader about the objectives and scope of your study, giving them an overview of what to expect in the paper. By including a comprehensive introduction, you establish your credibility as an author and convince the reader that your research is worth their time and attention.

Key Elements to Include in Your Introduction

When writing your research paper introduction, there are several key elements you should include to ensure it is comprehensive and informative.

  • A hook or attention-grabbing statement to capture the reader's interest.  It can be a thought-provoking question, a surprising statistic, or a compelling anecdote that relates to your research topic.
  • A brief overview of the research topic and its significance. By highlighting the gap in existing knowledge or the problem your research aims to address, you create a compelling case for the relevance of your study.
  • A clear research question or problem statement. This serves as the foundation of your research and guides the reader in understanding the unique focus of your study. It should be concise, specific, and clearly articulated.
  • An outline of the paper's structure and main arguments, to help the readers navigate through the paper with ease.

Preparing to Write Your Introduction

Before diving into writing your introduction, it is essential to prepare adequately. This involves 3 important steps:

  • Conducting Preliminary Research: Immerse yourself in the existing literature to develop a clear research question and position your study within the academic discourse.
  • Identifying Your Thesis Statement: Define a specific, focused, and debatable thesis statement, serving as a roadmap for your paper.
  • Considering Broader Context: Reflect on the significance of your research within your field, understanding its potential impact and contribution.

By engaging in these preparatory steps, you can ensure that your introduction is well-informed, focused, and sets the stage for a compelling research paper.

Structuring Your Introduction

Now that you have prepared yourself to tackle the introduction, it's time to structure it effectively. A well-structured introduction will engage the reader from the beginning and provide a logical flow to your research paper.

Starting with a Hook

Begin your introduction with an attention-grabbing hook that captivates the reader's interest. This hook serves as a way to make your introduction more engaging and compelling. For example, if you are writing a research paper on the impact of climate change on biodiversity, you could start your introduction with a statistic about the number of species that have gone extinct due to climate change. This will immediately grab the reader's attention and make them realize the urgency and importance of the topic.

Introducing Your Topic

Provide a brief overview, which should give the reader a general understanding of the subject matter and its significance. Explain the importance of the topic and its relevance to the field. This will help the reader understand why your research is significant and why they should continue reading. Continuing with the example of climate change and biodiversity, you could explain how climate change is one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity, how it affects ecosystems, and the potential consequences for both wildlife and human populations. By providing this context, you are setting the stage for the rest of your research paper and helping the reader understand the importance of your study.

Presenting Your Thesis Statement

The thesis statement should directly address your research question and provide a preview of the main arguments or findings discussed in your paper. Make sure your thesis statement is clear, concise, and well-supported by the evidence you will present in your research paper. By presenting a strong and focused thesis statement, you are providing the reader with the information they could anticipate in your research paper. This will help them understand the purpose and scope of your study and will make them more inclined to continue reading.

Writing Techniques for an Effective Introduction

When crafting an introduction, it is crucial to pay attention to the finer details that can elevate your writing to the next level. By utilizing specific writing techniques, you can captivate your readers and draw them into your research journey.

Using Clear and Concise Language

One of the most important writing techniques to employ in your introduction is the use of clear and concise language. By choosing your words carefully, you can effectively convey your ideas to the reader. It is essential to avoid using jargon or complex terminology that may confuse or alienate your audience. Instead, focus on communicating your research in a straightforward manner to ensure that your introduction is accessible to both experts in your field and those who may be new to the topic. This approach allows you to engage a broader audience and make your research more inclusive.

Establishing the Relevance of Your Research

One way to establish the relevance of your research is by highlighting how it fills a gap in the existing literature. Explain how your study addresses a significant research question that has not been adequately explored. By doing this, you demonstrate that your research is not only unique but also contributes to the broader knowledge in your field. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize the potential impact of your research. Whether it is advancing scientific understanding, informing policy decisions, or improving practical applications, make it clear to the reader how your study can make a difference.

By employing these two writing techniques in your introduction, you can effectively engage your readers. Take your time to craft an introduction that is both informative and captivating, leaving your readers eager to delve deeper into your research.

Revising and Polishing Your Introduction

Once you have written your introduction, it is crucial to revise and polish it to ensure that it effectively sets the stage for your research paper.

Self-Editing Techniques

Review your introduction for clarity, coherence, and logical flow. Ensure each paragraph introduces a new idea or argument with smooth transitions.

Check for grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, and awkward sentence structures.

Ensure that your introduction aligns with the overall tone and style of your research paper.

Seeking Feedback for Improvement

Consider seeking feedback from peers, colleagues, or your instructor. They can provide valuable insights and suggestions for improving your introduction. Be open to constructive criticism and use it to refine your introduction and make it more compelling for the reader.

Writing an introduction for a research paper requires careful thought and planning. By understanding the purpose of the introduction, preparing adequately, structuring effectively, and employing writing techniques, you can create an engaging and informative introduction for your research. Remember to revise and polish your introduction to ensure that it accurately represents the main ideas and arguments in your research paper. With a well-crafted introduction, you will capture the reader's attention and keep them inclined to your paper.

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Home → Academic Writing → How to Write a Research Paper Introduction: Hook, Line, and Sinker

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction: Hook, Line, and Sinker

Jordan Kruszynski

Jordan Kruszynski

  • January 4, 2024

introduce your topic in research

Want to know how to write a research paper introduction that dazzles?

Struggling to hook your reader in with your opening sentences?

Crafting a captivating research paper introduction can be the difference between a mediocre paper and an outstanding one. The introduction sets the tone for the entire paper, and if it fails to capture the reader’s attention, your hard work may go unnoticed. In this post, we’ll explore some techniques for crafting a compelling introduction that will hook your reader from the very beginning. From using statistics to posing thought-provoking questions, we’ll show you how to reel in your reader hook, line, and sinker.

So, grab your pen and paper, and let’s get started!

What Makes a Captivating Introduction?

When it comes to writing a research paper, the introduction is everything. It’s the first glimpse your audience gets of what’s to come and the determining factor as to whether they continue reading or move on. A captivating introduction should immediately grab the reader’s attention and draw them in, enticing them to learn more about your unique research. It should be thought-provoking, relevant and informative.

By connecting with your audience and allowing them to identify with your work, you create an emotional investment from the start. You might be thinking that a research paper introduction only needs to provide cold, hard information, but this is missing half of the picture. If you can blend quality information with skilful writing, you’ll ensure that your reader remains engaged and open to your argument throughout the entirety of your paper. So, when crafting your introduction, strive to be engaging and focus on making a strong impression.

Pre-Writing Strategies for Crafting an Effective Introduction

Crafting that quality introduction begins even before you put pen to paper (or finger to keyboard). Start planning mentally with the following tips:

  • Try to ‘visualise’ your research from beginning to end. Your paper is your means of guiding the reader through that research. Imagine that you’re going to take the reader by the hand and walk them through it. What do they need to know before you set off? What’s going to convince them to take the journey? Thinking along these lines will set you in the right frame of mind for writing.
  • Remember that your introduction acts as a roadmap, directing readers towards your key points and arguments and letting them know what to expect. Thinking in terms of providing a map will clarify your writing decisions.
  • Think clearly and with confidence. If your introduction is vague, lacks sufficient information or is otherwise unconvincing, your reader may become disengaged from the outset.

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction with Clarity and Style

With your thoughts flowing, you can now turn to the act of writing your introduction, Each of the sections outlined below will typically take up one paragraph of your intro, with the exception of the literature review, which is likely to occupy several.

  • Always keep in mind that anyone can read your paper, not just an academically literate audience. With this in mind, begin by introducing your subject generally, ideally in a way that a layperson could understand. If you overwhelm your reader with technical language from the outset, they may become frustrated and stop reading.
  • Your subject introduction might include some historical context, or a brief overview of the significance of your field. Either way, prepare to narrow down that general overview to your specific research. Let the reader know what you’re working on.
  • More importantly, explain why your research is important. Perhaps you’re seeking to fill in a gap in the historical record, or are working on medication that could help people with a specific illness. Be clear about why your research could make a difference and why the reader should pay attention to it.

Literature Review

  • At this point, you can go into more detail on existing research efforts in your field with a literature review. Find out all about these and how to construct them in our complete guide . (Add link to lit. review post once it’s published)

Research Intention

  • Here, go into detail on the intention of your research. If you have a hypothesis, state it, or if you’re approaching your work with a broader, more open research question, then set it out.
  • Briefly discuss your research methods, keeping in mind that you’ll probably be writing a complete methodology section later.

Paper Overview

  • In this optional section, provide a brief overview of your whole paper by section, outlining what you intend to do in each of them – for example ‘In Section 4 we describe our methodology in detail. In Section 5 we present our data without analysis. In Section 6 we conduct an analysis of the data.’

As we mentioned before, balancing quality information with skilful, engaging writing can grab your reader’s attention right from the start. One way to do this is through a hook. But what makes a good hook?

  • It could be a statistic, taken either from your own research or elsewhere. Naturally, it should be relevant to your topic, as well as thought-provoking – a figure that makes your reader sit up and take notice of what you’re about to say. For example, if your paper focuses on marine plastics, then consider using a statistic to illustrate just how prevalent the problem is.
  • It might be a reference to a current event that is garnering a lot of attention. If you can connect that event to your research, and prove its social relevance, you can potentially earn more readers than you might expect.
  • You could even use a quotation, for example from a respected academic in your field. This can act as a point of inspiration for both you and your reader. There’s nothing stopping you from being creative in your introduction, and if your hook is directly relevant to your research, then it can take whatever shape you like.

Final Thoughts

The introductory paragraphs of your research paper are your chance to make a great first impression. By crafting a captivating introduction, you can draw your reader in and set the stage for an outstanding paper. From using powerful statistics to posing thought-provoking questions, there are many techniques you can use to hook your reader from the very beginning. So don’t be afraid to get creative and experiment with different approaches until you find one that works for you.

With these tips in mind, you’ll know how to write a research paper introduction that will leave your audience hooked, lined, and sunk!

Looking for introduction inspiration? Check out the array of papers available on Audemic , where you can listen to your heart’s content until you find the one that hits right!

Keep striving, researchers! ✨

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How to write an introduction for a research paper? Eventually (and with practice) all writers will develop their own strategy for writing the perfect introduction for a research paper. Once you are comfortable with writing, you will probably find your own, but coming up with a good strategy can be tough for beginning writers.

The Purpose of an Introduction

Your opening paragraphs, phrases for introducing thesis statements, research paper introduction examples, using the introduction to map out your research paper.

How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper

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  • First write your thesis.Your thesis should state the main idea in specific terms.
  • After you have a working thesis, tackle the body of your paper before you write the rest of the introduction. Each paragraph in the body should explore one specific topic that proves, or summarizes your thesis. Writing is a thinking process. Once you have worked your way through that process by writing the body of the paper, you will have an intimate understanding of how you are supporting your thesis. After you have written the body paragraphs, go back and rewrite your thesis to make it more specific and to connect it to the topics you addressed in the body paragraph.
  • Revise your introduction several times, saving each revision. Be sure your introduction previews the topics you are presenting in your paper. One way of doing this is to use keywords from the topic sentences in each paragraph to introduce, or preview, the topics in your introduction.This “preview” will give your reader a context for understanding how you will make your case.
  • Experiment by taking different approaches to your thesis with every revision you make. Play with the language in the introduction. Strike a new tone. Go back and compare versions. Then pick the one that works most effectively with the body of your research paper.
  • Do not try to pack everything you want to say into your introduction. Just as your introduction should not be too short, it should also not be too long. Your introduction should be about the same length as any other paragraph in your research paper. Let the content—what you have to say—dictate the length.

The first page of your research paper should draw the reader into the text. It is the paper’s most important page and, alas, often the worst written. There are two culprits here and effective ways to cope with both of them.

First, the writer is usually straining too hard to say something terribly BIG and IMPORTANT about the thesis topic. The goal is worthy, but the aim is unrealistically high. The result is often a muddle of vague platitudes rather than a crisp, compelling introduction to the thesis. Want a familiar example? Listen to most graduation speakers. Their goal couldn’t be loftier: to say what education means and to tell an entire football stadium how to live the rest of their lives. The results are usually an avalanche of clichés and sodden prose.

The second culprit is bad timing. The opening and concluding paragraphs are usually written late in the game, after the rest of the thesis is finished and polished. There’s nothing wrong with writing these sections last. It’s usually the right approach since you need to know exactly what you are saying in the substantive middle sections of the thesis before you can introduce them effectively or draw together your findings. But having waited to write the opening and closing sections, you need to review and edit them several times to catch up. Otherwise, you’ll putting the most jagged prose in the most tender spots. Edit and polish your opening paragraphs with extra care. They should draw readers into the paper.

After you’ve done some extra polishing, I suggest a simple test for the introductory section. As an experiment, chop off the first few paragraphs. Let the paper begin on, say, paragraph 2 or even page 2. If you don’t lose much, or actually gain in clarity and pace, then you’ve got a problem.

There are two solutions. One is to start at this new spot, further into the text. After all, that’s where you finally gain traction on your subject. That works best in some cases, and we occasionally suggest it. The alternative, of course, is to write a new opening that doesn’t flop around, saying nothing.

What makes a good opening? Actually, they come in several flavors. One is an intriguing story about your topic. Another is a brief, compelling quote. When you run across them during your reading, set them aside for later use. Don’t be deterred from using them because they “don’t seem academic enough.” They’re fine as long as the rest of the paper doesn’t sound like you did your research in People magazine. The third, and most common, way to begin is by stating your main questions, followed by a brief comment about why they matter.

Whichever opening you choose, it should engage your readers and coax them to continue. Having done that, you should give them a general overview of the project—the main issues you will cover, the material you will use, and your thesis statement (that is, your basic approach to the topic). Finally, at the end of the introductory section, give your readers a brief road map, showing how the paper will unfold. How you do that depends on your topic but here are some general suggestions for phrase choice that may help:

  • This analysis will provide …
  • This paper analyzes the relationship between …
  • This paper presents an analysis of …
  • This paper will argue that …
  • This topic supports the argument that…
  • Research supports the opinion that …
  • This paper supports the opinion that …
  • An interpretation of the facts indicates …
  • The results of this experiment show …
  • The results of this research show …


  • A comparison will show that …
  • By contrasting the results,we see that …
  • This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of …


  • This paper will provide a guide for categorizing the following:…
  • This paper provides a definition of …
  • This paper explores the meaning of …
  • This paper will discuss the implications of …
  • A discussion of this topic reveals …
  • The following discussion will focus on …


  • This report describes…
  • This report will illustrate…
  • This paper provides an illustration of …


  • This paper will identify the reasons behind…
  • The results of the experiment show …
  • The process revealed that …
  • This paper theorizes…
  • This paper presents the theory that …
  • In theory, this indicates that …

Quotes, anecdotes, questions, examples, and broad statements—all of them can used successfully to write an introduction for a research paper. It’s instructive to see them in action, in the hands of skilled academic writers.

Let’s begin with David M. Kennedy’s superb history, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 . Kennedy begins each chapter with a quote, followed by his text. The quote above chapter 1 shows President Hoover speaking in 1928 about America’s golden future. The text below it begins with the stock market collapse of 1929. It is a riveting account of just how wrong Hoover was. The text about the Depression is stronger because it contrasts so starkly with the optimistic quotation.

“We in America today are nearer the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land.”—Herbert Hoover, August 11, 1928 Like an earthquake, the stock market crash of October 1929 cracked startlingly across the United States, the herald of a crisis that was to shake the American way of life to its foundations. The events of the ensuing decade opened a fissure across the landscape of American history no less gaping than that opened by the volley on Lexington Common in April 1775 or by the bombardment of Sumter on another April four score and six years later. The ratcheting ticker machines in the autumn of 1929 did not merely record avalanching stock prices. In time they came also to symbolize the end of an era. (David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 10)

Kennedy has exciting, wrenching material to work with. John Mueller faces the exact opposite problem. In Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War , he is trying to explain why Great Powers have suddenly stopped fighting each other. For centuries they made war on each other with devastating regularity, killing millions in the process. But now, Mueller thinks, they have not just paused; they have stopped permanently. He is literally trying to explain why “nothing is happening now.” That may be an exciting topic intellectually, it may have great practical significance, but “nothing happened” is not a very promising subject for an exciting opening paragraph. Mueller manages to make it exciting and, at the same time, shows why it matters so much. Here’s his opening, aptly entitled “History’s Greatest Nonevent”:

On May 15, 1984, the major countries of the developed world had managed to remain at peace with each other for the longest continuous stretch of time since the days of the Roman Empire. If a significant battle in a war had been fought on that day, the press would have bristled with it. As usual, however, a landmark crossing in the history of peace caused no stir: the most prominent story in the New York Times that day concerned the saga of a manicurist, a machinist, and a cleaning woman who had just won a big Lotto contest. This book seeks to develop an explanation for what is probably the greatest nonevent in human history. (John Mueller, Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War . New York: Basic Books, 1989, p. 3)

In the space of a few sentences, Mueller sets up his puzzle and reveals its profound human significance. At the same time, he shows just how easy it is to miss this milestone in the buzz of daily events. Notice how concretely he does that. He doesn’t just say that the New York Times ignored this record setting peace. He offers telling details about what they covered instead: “a manicurist, a machinist, and a cleaning woman who had just won a big Lotto contest.” Likewise, David Kennedy immediately entangles us in concrete events: the stunning stock market crash of 1929. These are powerful openings that capture readers’ interests, establish puzzles, and launch narratives.

Sociologist James Coleman begins in a completely different way, by posing the basic questions he will study. His ambitious book, Foundations of Social Theory , develops a comprehensive theory of social life, so it is entirely appropriate for him to begin with some major questions. But he could just as easily have begun with a compelling story or anecdote. He includes many of them elsewhere in his book. His choice for the opening, though, is to state his major themes plainly and frame them as a paradox. Sociologists, he says, are interested in aggregate behavior—how people act in groups, organizations, or large numbers—yet they mostly examine individuals:

A central problem in social science is that of accounting for the function of some kind of social system. Yet in most social research, observations are not made on the system as a whole, but on some part of it. In fact, the natural unit of observation is the individual person…  This has led to a widening gap between theory and research… (James S. Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990, pp. 1–2)

After expanding on this point, Coleman explains that he will not try to remedy the problem by looking solely at groups or aggregate-level data. That’s a false solution, he says, because aggregates don’t act; individuals do. So the real problem is to show the links between individual actions and aggregate outcomes, between the micro and the macro.

The major problem for explanations of system behavior based on actions and orientations at a level below that of the system [in this case, on individual-level actions] is that of moving from the lower level to the system level. This has been called the micro-to-macro problem, and it is pervasive throughout the social sciences. (Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory , p. 6)

Explaining how to deal with this “micro-to-macro problem” is the central issue of Coleman’s book, and he announces it at the beginning.

Coleman’s theory-driven opening stands at the opposite end of the spectrum from engaging stories or anecdotes, which are designed to lure the reader into the narrative and ease the path to a more analytic treatment later in the text. Take, for example, the opening sentences of Robert L. Herbert’s sweeping study Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society : “When Henry Tuckerman came to Paris in 1867, one of the thousands of Americans attracted there by the huge international exposition, he was bowled over by the extraordinary changes since his previous visit twenty years before.” (Robert L. Herbert, Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988, p. 1.) Herbert fills in the evocative details to set the stage for his analysis of the emerging Impressionist art movement and its connection to Parisian society and leisure in this period.

David Bromwich writes about Wordsworth, a poet so familiar to students of English literature that it is hard to see him afresh, before his great achievements, when he was just a young outsider starting to write. To draw us into Wordsworth’s early work, Bromwich wants us to set aside our entrenched images of the famous mature poet and see him as he was in the 1790s, as a beginning writer on the margins of society. He accomplishes this ambitious task in the opening sentences of Disowned by Memory: Wordsworth’s Poetry of the 1790s :

Wordsworth turned to poetry after the revolution to remind himself that he was still a human being. It was a curious solution, to a difficulty many would not have felt. The whole interest of his predicament is that he did feel it. Yet Wordsworth is now so established an eminence—his name so firmly fixed with readers as a moralist of self-trust emanating from complete self-security—that it may seem perverse to imagine him as a criminal seeking expiation. Still, that is a picture we get from The Borderers and, at a longer distance, from “Tintern Abbey.” (David Bromwich, Disowned by Memory: Wordsworth’s Poetry of the 1790s . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998, p. 1)

That’s a wonderful opening! Look at how much Bromwich accomplishes in just a few words. He not only prepares the way for analyzing Wordsworth’s early poetry; he juxtaposes the anguished young man who wrote it to the self-confident, distinguished figure he became—the eminent man we can’t help remembering as we read his early poetry.

Let us highlight a couple of other points in this passage because they illustrate some intelligent writing choices. First, look at the odd comma in this sentence: “It was a curious solution, to a difficulty many would not have felt.” Any standard grammar book would say that comma is wrong and should be omitted. Why did Bromwich insert it? Because he’s a fine writer, thinking of his sentence rhythm and the point he wants to make. The comma does exactly what it should. It makes us pause, breaking the sentence into two parts, each with an interesting point. One is that Wordsworth felt a difficulty others would not have; the other is that he solved it in a distinctive way. It would be easy for readers to glide over this double message, so Bromwich has inserted a speed bump to slow us down. Most of the time, you should follow grammatical rules, like those about commas, but you should bend them when it serves a good purpose. That’s what the writer does here.

The second small point is the phrase “after the revolution” in the first sentence: “Wordsworth turned to poetry after the revolution to remind himself that he was still a human being.” Why doesn’t Bromwich say “after the French Revolution”? Because he has judged his book’s audience. He is writing for specialists who already know which revolution is reverberating through English life in the 1790s. It is the French Revolution, not the earlier loss of the American colonies. If Bromwich were writing for a much broader audience—say, the New York Times Book Review—he would probably insert the extra word to avoid confusion.

The message “Know your audience” applies to all writers. Don’t talk down to them by assuming they can’t get dressed in the morning. Don’t strut around showing off your book learnin’ by tossing in arcane facts and esoteric language for its own sake. Neither will win over readers.

Bromwich, Herbert, and Coleman open their works in different ways, but their choices work well for their different texts. Your task is to decide what kind of opening will work best for yours. Don’t let that happen by default, by grabbing the first idea you happen upon. Consider a couple of different ways of opening your thesis and then choose the one you prefer. Give yourself some options, think them over, then make an informed choice.

Whether you begin with a story, puzzle, or broad statement, the next part of the introduction should pose your main questions and establish your argument. This is your thesis statement—your viewpoint along with the supporting reasons and evidence. It should be articulated plainly so readers understand full well what your paper is about and what it will argue.

After that, give your readers a road map of what’s to come. That’s normally done at the end of the introductory section (or, in a book, at the end of the introductory chapter). Here’s John J. Mearsheimer presenting such a road map in The Tragedy of Great Power Politics . He not only tells us the order of upcoming chapters, he explains why he’s chosen that order and which chapters are most important:

The Plan of the Book The rest of the chapters in this book are concerned mainly with answering the six big questions about power which I identified earlier. Chapter 2, which is probably the most important chapter in the book, lays out my theory of why states compete for power and why they pursue hegemony. In Chapters 3 and 4, I define power and explain how to measure it. I do this in order to lay the groundwork for testing my theory… (John J. Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics . New York: W. W. Norton, 2001, p. 27)

As this excerpt makes clear, Mearsheimer has already laid out his “six big questions” in the introduction. Now he’s showing us the path ahead, the path to answering those questions.

At the end of the introduction, give your readers a road map of what’s to come. Tell them what the upcoming sections will be and why they are arranged in this particular order.

After having written your introduction it’s time to move to the biggest part: body of a research paper.

Back to How To Write A Research Paper .


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The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining the remaining structure and organization of the paper.

Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by the 2010 Curriculum Design and Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools.

Importance of a Good Introduction

Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions:

  • What was I studying?
  • Why was this topic important to investigate?
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study?
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding?

According to Reyes, there are three overarching goals of a good introduction: 1) ensure that you summarize prior studies about the topic in a manner that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem; 2) explain how your study specifically addresses gaps in the literature, insufficient consideration of the topic, or other deficiency in the literature; and, 3) note the broader theoretical, empirical, and/or policy contributions and implications of your research.

A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach. All introductions should conclude with a brief paragraph that describes the organization of the rest of the paper.

Hirano, Eliana. “Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English.” English for Specific Purposes 28 (October 2009): 240-250; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide. Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Reyes, Victoria. Demystifying the Journal Article. Inside Higher Education.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  Structure and Approach

The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader:

  • What is this?
  • Why should I read it?
  • What do you want me to think about / consider doing / react to?

Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem. Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow your analysis to more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your research problem and the rationale for studying it [often written as a series of key questions to be addressed or framed as a hypothesis or set of assumptions to be tested] and, whenever possible, a description of the potential outcomes your study can reveal.

These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: 1.  Establish an area to research by:

  • Highlighting the importance of the topic, and/or
  • Making general statements about the topic, and/or
  • Presenting an overview on current research on the subject.

2.  Identify a research niche by:

  • Opposing an existing assumption, and/or
  • Revealing a gap in existing research, and/or
  • Formulating a research question or problem, and/or
  • Continuing a disciplinary tradition.

3.  Place your research within the research niche by:

  • Stating the intent of your study,
  • Outlining the key characteristics of your study,
  • Describing important results, and
  • Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.

NOTE:   It is often useful to review the introduction late in the writing process. This is appropriate because outcomes are unknown until you've completed the study. After you complete writing the body of the paper, go back and review introductory descriptions of the structure of the paper, the method of data gathering, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion. Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the overall structure of your final paper.

II.  Delimitations of the Study

Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your research . This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the topic.

Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction. For example, a delimitating statement could read, "Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to the need to work full-time while in school." The point is not to document every possible delimiting factor, but to highlight why previously researched issues related to the topic were not addressed.

Examples of delimitating choices would be:

  • The key aims and objectives of your study,
  • The research questions that you address,
  • The variables of interest [i.e., the various factors and features of the phenomenon being studied],
  • The method(s) of investigation,
  • The time period your study covers, and
  • Any relevant alternative theoretical frameworks that could have been adopted.

Review each of these decisions. Not only do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover. In the latter case, your exclusionary decisions should be based upon criteria understood as, "not interesting"; "not directly relevant"; “too problematic because..."; "not feasible," and the like. Make this reasoning explicit!

NOTE:   Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed.

ANOTHER NOTE : Do not view delimitating statements as admitting to an inherent failing or shortcoming in your research. They are an accepted element of academic writing intended to keep the reader focused on the research problem by explicitly defining the conceptual boundaries and scope of your study. It addresses any critical questions in the reader's mind of, "Why the hell didn't the author examine this?"

III.  The Narrative Flow

Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :

  • Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest . A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction. This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.
  • Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis. This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review--that comes next. It consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature [with citations] that establishes a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. See the drop-down menu under this tab for " Background Information " regarding types of contexts.
  • Clearly state the hypothesis that you investigated . When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a past statement like, "The purpose of this study was to...." or "We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the...."
  • Why did you choose this kind of research study or design? Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction.

IV.  Engaging the Reader

A research problem in the social sciences can come across as dry and uninteresting to anyone unfamiliar with the topic . Therefore, one of the goals of your introduction is to make readers want to read your paper. Here are several strategies you can use to grab the reader's attention:

  • Open with a compelling story . Almost all research problems in the social sciences, no matter how obscure or esoteric , are really about the lives of people. Telling a story that humanizes an issue can help illuminate the significance of the problem and help the reader empathize with those affected by the condition being studied.
  • Include a strong quotation or a vivid, perhaps unexpected, anecdote . During your review of the literature, make note of any quotes or anecdotes that grab your attention because they can used in your introduction to highlight the research problem in a captivating way.
  • Pose a provocative or thought-provoking question . Your research problem should be framed by a set of questions to be addressed or hypotheses to be tested. However, a provocative question can be presented in the beginning of your introduction that challenges an existing assumption or compels the reader to consider an alternative viewpoint that helps establish the significance of your study. 
  • Describe a puzzling scenario or incongruity . This involves highlighting an interesting quandary concerning the research problem or describing contradictory findings from prior studies about a topic. Posing what is essentially an unresolved intellectual riddle about the problem can engage the reader's interest in the study.
  • Cite a stirring example or case study that illustrates why the research problem is important . Draw upon the findings of others to demonstrate the significance of the problem and to describe how your study builds upon or offers alternatives ways of investigating this prior research.

NOTE:   It is important that you choose only one of the suggested strategies for engaging your readers. This avoids giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance and does not distract from the substance of your study.

Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Introductions. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Resources for Writers: Introduction Strategies. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks . 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 ; Writing Your Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University.

Writing Tip

Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction

Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific terminology that readers may be unfamiliar with. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source because it doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term or concept may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, use a subject specific dictionary or encyclopedia [e.g., if you are a sociology student, search for dictionaries of sociology]. A good database for obtaining definitive definitions of concepts or terms is Credo Reference .

Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

Another Writing Tip

When Do I Begin?

A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "Where should I begin?" An equally important question to ask yourself is, "When do I begin?" Research problems in the social sciences rarely rest in isolation from history. Therefore, it is important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that illustrates the study's overall importance. For example, a study that investigates coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exports in Africa. If a research problem requires a substantial exploration of the historical context, do this in the literature review section. In your introduction, make note of this as part of the "roadmap" [see below] that you use to describe the organization of your paper.

Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70.

Yet Another Writing Tip

Always End with a Roadmap

The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [the "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. A roadmap is important because it helps the reader place the research problem within the context of their own perspectives about the topic. In addition, concluding your introduction with an explicit roadmap tells the reader that you have a clear understanding of the structural purpose of your paper. In this way, the roadmap acts as a type of promise to yourself and to your readers that you will follow a consistent and coherent approach to addressing the topic of inquiry. Refer to it often to help keep your writing focused and organized.

Cassuto, Leonard. “On the Dissertation: How to Write the Introduction.” The Chronicle of Higher Education , May 28, 2018; Radich, Michael. A Student's Guide to Writing in East Asian Studies . (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Writing n. d.), pp. 35-37.

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How to Write an Effective Research Paper Introduction


The introduction of a research paper has several purposes. It presents your topic, describes the problem your research seeks to solve, and outlines the structure of your paper. It can also inform your audience about how your study differs from the research that has already been done. Generally, the introduction helps you to show your audience why your research topic is worth exploring. It gives you the chance to convince your reader why they should stick around and see what you have to say.

The first 1-2 sentences of your introduction should give an elevator pitch of your work. Be clear, relevant, and to the point. Don't sweat the engagement of your first sentences. You might have heard the advice that, when writing, you should use the first few sentences to wow your readers, transporting them into a lyrical world of imagination. While this is certainly good counsel in creative writing or consumer literature to hook your reader, research papers are another story; you won't need quotes from wise heroes of the past to grab your readers' attention. In most cases, your audience comprises people already interested in the field who are intrigued by your title and want to delve into what you have found through your study, and you don't want to include trite snippets right at the outset. Of course, you don't want to bore your readers either, so strive for clarity and direct information about your study so the readers who navigate to your paper know what they can expect.

To introduce your research paper effectively, include the following elements in your introduction. You will expand on these topics in greater detail in the paper, but in the introduction to your paper, you'll provide a summary of each one.

  • Overview: Provide a focused statement on the subject matter of your research. What questions are you seeking to answer? How will your study make the world a better place? Here you can also briefly describe any problems you encountered while conducting your study (and be sure to state that you will address these problems within the paper!).
  • Prior research: It's important that your audience knows you've already explored the field and looked around at what has already been written. Briefly discuss what past studies have concluded on the subject and what that means for your current study. Maybe in your search, you found that your research is the first to address your specific topic, which is why your study is so valuable. Let your readers know that you've done your homework.
  • Rationale: Make your case regarding why your study is important today. What will your findings bring to the field? Your research could address current issues and events, or it might illuminate gaps in previous research that need to be filled in order to move ahead in the academic field and strengthen future studies.
  • Methodology: In your methodology paragraph, briefly name the processes you applied during your study. Why are these tools the best ones for your specific research? What answers do you get from using these methods? Details on your methodology can bring credibility to your study and help with future application of your findings to similar fields.

Perfecting Your Thesis Statement

  • Outline of the paper: At the conclusion on your introduction, offer a review of what your study will discuss specifically in the sections that follow.

Once you've gathered all of the necessary elements for your introduction, try these tips to make your introduction pop:

  • Try finalizing your introduction after you've finished writing the body of the paper. While it's beneficial to map out what you want your introduction to say before you begin your paper, wait until you've elaborated on your research in detail, and then create your introduction. With the entire work fresh in your mind, you have a clear grasp on what it's about, your purpose in writing it, and what the study results mean for the world.
  • Show, don't tell. When giving a brief summary of your work, give compelling details about why this study is a good one to conduct. Remember, you still want to be brief, but you can accomplish clarity and brevity while also enticing your readers to share your vision. For example, instead of stating, "Dual language educational programs are important for children," consider saying, "Dual language programs help students develop increased cognitive function, future linguistic advantages, and a broadened worldview."
  • Keep it simple. Don't bury the good points of your work in excessive detail within the introduction. Your entire paper is where you will delve into the finer points of the research, so take stock of which ideas are the most important and stick to those nuggets to motivate your audience to read on.
  • Speak to a broader audience. Your research will certainly attract specialists in the field who know every term you could possibly throw at them, but your audience also includes laymen and people who haven't spent as much time in the field as you have, knee-deep in your study. Remember to make your introduction accessible to those who aren't familiar with the industry jargon. The body of the paper is a great place to flex your muscles and the nitty-gritty details of your research results, but the introduction should be consumable by a much more general group. If you have to use specialized language, make sure to define those obscure terms that only a select few people would know.

Your introduction gives your readers greater access to your work. You are the expert, of course, but your goal is to display your findings to a broader audience, and your introduction is the key to accomplishing that objective. Follow these tips and examples to help you create a strong introductory section for your research paper.

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Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Writing > How to write an introduction for a research paper

How to write an introduction for a research paper

Beginnings are hard. Beginning a research paper is no exception. Many students—and pros—struggle with how to write an introduction for a research paper.

This short guide will describe the purpose of a research paper introduction and how to create a good one.

a research paper being viewed on a Acer TravelMate B311 2-in-1 on desk with pad of paper.

What is an introduction for a research paper?

Introductions to research papers do a lot of work.

It may seem obvious, but introductions are always placed at the beginning of a paper. They guide your reader from a general subject area to the narrow topic that your paper covers. They also explain your paper’s:

  • Scope: The topic you’ll be covering
  • Context: The background of your topic
  • Importance: Why your research matters in the context of an industry or the world

Your introduction will cover a lot of ground. However, it will only be half of a page to a few pages long. The length depends on the size of your paper as a whole. In many cases, the introduction will be shorter than all of the other sections of your paper.

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Why is an introduction vital to a research paper?

The introduction to your research paper isn’t just important. It’s critical.

Your readers don’t know what your research paper is about from the title. That’s where your introduction comes in. A good introduction will:

  • Help your reader understand your topic’s background
  • Explain why your research paper is worth reading
  • Offer a guide for navigating the rest of the piece
  • Pique your reader’s interest

Without a clear introduction, your readers will struggle. They may feel confused when they start reading your paper. They might even give up entirely. Your introduction will ground them and prepare them for the in-depth research to come.

What should you include in an introduction for a research paper?

Research paper introductions are always unique. After all, research is original by definition. However, they often contain six essential items. These are:

  • An overview of the topic. Start with a general overview of your topic. Narrow the overview until you address your paper’s specific subject. Then, mention questions or concerns you had about the case. Note that you will address them in the publication.
  • Prior research. Your introduction is the place to review other conclusions on your topic. Include both older scholars and modern scholars. This background information shows that you are aware of prior research. It also introduces past findings to those who might not have that expertise.
  • A rationale for your paper. Explain why your topic needs to be addressed right now. If applicable, connect it to current issues. Additionally, you can show a problem with former theories or reveal a gap in current research. No matter how you do it, a good rationale will interest your readers and demonstrate why they must read the rest of your paper.
  • Describe the methodology you used. Recount your processes to make your paper more credible. Lay out your goal and the questions you will address. Reveal how you conducted research and describe how you measured results. Moreover, explain why you made key choices.
  • A thesis statement. Your main introduction should end with a thesis statement. This statement summarizes the ideas that will run through your entire research article. It should be straightforward and clear.
  • An outline. Introductions often conclude with an outline. Your layout should quickly review what you intend to cover in the following sections. Think of it as a roadmap, guiding your reader to the end of your paper.

These six items are emphasized more or less, depending on your field. For example, a physics research paper might emphasize methodology. An English journal article might highlight the overview.

Three tips for writing your introduction

We don’t just want you to learn how to write an introduction for a research paper. We want you to learn how to make it shine.

There are three things you can do that will make it easier to write a great introduction. You can:

  • Write your introduction last. An introduction summarizes all of the things you’ve learned from your research. While it can feel good to get your preface done quickly, you should write the rest of your paper first. Then, you’ll find it easy to create a clear overview.
  • Include a strong quotation or story upfront. You want your paper to be full of substance. But that doesn’t mean it should feel boring or flat. Add a relevant quotation or surprising anecdote to the beginning of your introduction. This technique will pique the interest of your reader and leave them wanting more.
  • Be concise. Research papers cover complex topics. To help your readers, try to write as clearly as possible. Use concise sentences. Check for confusing grammar or syntax . Read your introduction out loud to catch awkward phrases. Before you finish your paper, be sure to proofread, too. Mistakes can seem unprofessional.

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Introducing Your Research: An Example Introduction”.

Research is an essential component of higher education, and it is often a critical part of developing scholarly expertise. As such, introducing one’s research effectively can be an important skill for any scholar to develop. This article offers guidance on how to compose an effective introduction for a scholarly paper or presentation that outlines the purpose and scope of your research project. Specifically, this article provides advice about structuring the introduction as well as strategies for engaging readers from diverse backgrounds in reading your work. In addition, examples are provided which illustrate appropriate introductions drawn from published studies on various topics related to academia. It is hoped that by following these guidelines and referring to examples provided in this paper scholars will be better able to create persuasive introductions capable of drawing their readers into their work.

1. Introduction

2. the purpose of introducing your research, 3. understanding the necessity for an example introduction, 4. crafting a comprehensive overview of your research topic, 5. utilizing key concepts in constructing your introduction, 6. establishing credibility and originality through illustrative examples, 7. considerations when summarizing initial findings.

Understanding the Research Topic The first step in writing an effective research paper is to understand what the topic is about. Before you can begin your investigation and conduct any research, it’s important that you are well informed on the subject matter. Depending on your interest in a particular field of study, take time to read up on relevant literature related to the topic before attempting this task.

For instance, let’s say you need to write a paper discussing healthcare reform in America from an economic perspective; then it would be beneficial for you to read publications by experts within that field such as articles or books written by economists specializing in healthcare reform topics specifically. Understanding their points of view allows one more insights into how best approach different angles of analysis when tackling similar topics.

Creating an Outline & Thesis Statement Once armed with enough background knowledge regarding a certain subject area, its time create a working outline which will guide one throughout the drafting process and provide structure for ones arguments moving forward – particularly if researching complex subjects .In most cases ,its helpful devise simple thesis statement early so as have solid point reference back once starting compose body paragraphs argumentative essays.

A good example might look like: Healthcare reforms should be introduced across America due intuitive cost-effectiveness benefit they provide citizens.

Having clearly formulated basic understanding positions related chosen issue serves twofold purpose creating roadmap basis future work navigating through unfamiliar territory.

Putting Your Research Into Perspective

It is important to provide your readers with the context and significance of your research. An effective way to do this is by introducing a short overview of relevant literature that has already been published on the subject. This should be followed up with an explanation of how your work contributes something new or valuable in its own right, such as filling gaps in existing knowledge or offering an alternative perspective.

To illustrate these points, consider the following example from a research paper introduction: “Previous studies have shown that rats given specific diets respond differently to behavioral tests than those provided with regular food options (Smith et al., 2020). The aim of our study was twofold; firstly, we sought to understand whether similar differences could also be observed between humans subjected to different dietary interventions; secondly, if any variations were observed, we wanted to identify possible mechanisms driving them.” In this instance it’s clear that the purpose behind introducing this particular piece of research was both clearly defined and necessary for advancing scientific understanding.

  • Highlighted existing findings within related fields.
  • Outlined what makes their project unique.
  • Provided insight into potential implications.

By drawing attention back toward prior discoveries while simultaneously emphasizing their own original contribution they are able successfully frame the importance and value associated with their chosen topic.

Including elements like these can help you effectively introduce not only why but also how your research matters within larger discourse surrounding its area – ultimately allowing you capture reader’s attention more easily!

It is essential for any research paper to have an example introduction that succinctly summarizes the topic, conveys its importance and provides the context of current knowledge. First , it is important to understand why having a clear and effective introductory paragraph is necessary. The introduction acts as a roadmap or guide for readers; this will help them comprehend what follows and provide sufficient background information to better interpret the material discussed throughout the body of your work.

In order to effectively craft an impactful example introduction, you must make sure that you include several key elements:

  • A brief overview of previous studies related to your paper’s topic.
  • The main problem/research question being addressed.

For instance, consider this sample research paper introduction from a study on fire ant populations in Austin, Texas over time: “This research aims at examining how fire ants are distributed across regions in Austin based on their population size over time. A range of methods were employed including data gathered through observation as well as literature reviews.” This sentence alone outlines two major components which should be included within an intro–the purpose (examining distribution) and methodology (observation + literature review). Additionally note how concise yet comprehensive it was–this helps keep readers engaged without overwhelming them with unnecessary detail.

When constructing such introductions, clarity is paramount – ensure you use simple language while still accurately portraying complex ideas! Additionally if applicable try connecting concepts between past works used by other scholars in order illustrate why your own piece fits into existing conversations within academia around said topics.

In-depth Analysis and Breakdown of Research Topic The key to crafting an effective research paper is thorough preparation. Before even attempting to write the introduction, it’s important for authors to gain a deep understanding of their chosen topic by examining existing literature on the subject and breaking down ideas into smaller components. This approach helps writers form a comprehensive overview that outlines all the main points they will make in their work.

Authors can achieve this through activities like:

  • Examining online scholarly databases for related articles.
  • Utilizing interdisciplinary resources from other fields.
  • Interviewing experts on various aspects of the topic.

Each activity should help create clarity around how each component fits together within your larger project framework. Once authors feel comfortable with what they know about their chosen field, they can begin writing out an introductory paragraph such as:

“This research paper seeks to explore X phenomenon (e.g., global climate change) by analyzing Y process (e.g., carbon emissions). The study focuses primarily on Z region/country/population (e.g., China) but considers similar trends throughout other areas worldwide as well.”

By thoroughly preparing beforehand, authors have effectively crafted a comprehensive overview before beginning actual research – making sure not only that relevant information has been gathered but also ensuring any content generated is properly organized and structured from start to finish..

The introduction to your research paper is the reader’s first contact with your work. Therefore, it should be both informative and captivating to engage them in reading further. To ensure that you are crafting an effective introduction, consider utilizing key concepts when constructing yours:

  • Explain Thesis/Purpose
  • Introduce Topic/Context
  • Outline Previous Research Findings

First off, make sure to explain the thesis or purpose of your paper so readers have a clear idea of what they will find throughout its entirety. Begin by presenting information on the topic at hand as well as any relevant context or background needed for understanding; provide some historical insight if necessary. After doing this preliminary groundwork in setting up the foundation for discussion, move onto outlining previously established research findings related to said subject matter–this helps build trust between you and reader as it shows that you understand current practices within field before introducing new evidence from sources used within body paragraphs later down line.

As example, let’s say researching effects long-term use prescription medications has on individual’s quality life – could start introductory paragraph something like following: “Prescription drug use among population constantly increasing over past decade – although intended improve health outcomes individuals taking such drugs often come detriment physical mental well-being due various side effects stemming from prolonged usage….etc” By providing readers this kind concise explanation up front through means single opening sentence able jumpstart their journey into world interesting insights surrounding issue being discussed much more efficiently!

Illustrative Examples and Credibility It is essential to establish your credibility as an author in the research paper. To do this, you need to provide illustrative examples that demonstrate why your argument or idea is valid and credible. When used appropriately, these examples should be direct, concrete, vivid and relevant. They can include factual evidence such as data from a study or survey results; personal experience stories or anecdotes; analogies that make abstract concepts understandable; quotations from experts who support the argument being made; references to books, articles, studies or other sources of information pertinent to the topic at hand.

For example: In a recent review on capital punishment published in The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology (2018), several different studies were cited which indicated that death penalty does not have any statistically significant effect on crime rates across states in America compared with life imprisonment without parole sentence for serious crimes like murder etc.. This lends credibility to my argument against using capital punishment by providing further proof of its lack of efficacy when it comes to deterring criminals and reducing criminal activity within society. Unnumbered List Example: Here are some more ideas for establishing credibility through illustrative examples:

  • Quotes from literary works which touch upon themes relevant the topic
  • Drawing comparisons between similar situations seen previously
  • Using common experiences people can relate too

These types of illustrations help bring clarity towards understanding complex arguments so readers can follow along easily while also helping them appreciate how much work has gone into producing valuable content for their consideration

When summarizing initial findings, it is important to consider a few key factors. Accuracy must be maintained when conveying the research in both qualitative and quantitative forms. Any summary should provide an accurate depiction of the data collected or presented. Furthermore, one must take into account whether the audience is familiar with terms or theories from within that field of study; if not, explanations may need to be included for clarity.

It can also prove helpful to add a brief example such as an introduction taken from a published research paper on your topic:

  • “This study investigated how sound affects memory recall in young adults aged 18-25.”

Contextualization , thusly, is essential so that readers gain an understanding of why they are reading about particular topics. Lastly, citing any references used during data collection should be done according to accepted standards – APA style for most studies conducted in North America. In this way, others will know where each piece of information originated and its validity can be easily verified by experts in the field.

This article has provided an in-depth discussion of how to compose a compelling introduction when introducing research. By examining the fundamental components of an effective introductory paragraph, readers have gained insight into constructing their own introductions that effectively set up the context and purpose for future research papers. Additionally, this paper illustrated the importance of creating interesting introductions that draw attention from one’s audience and spark curiosity for further reading. Lastly, it highlighted common pitfalls to avoid while writing strong introductory paragraphs as well as possible methods for improving them if they do not meet expectations initially. All in all, understanding what makes an impactful introduction is essential for any researcher or writer who wishes to produce captivating work that captures their reader’s interest throughout each section of their paper.

Shenandoah University

Presenting Research: Introduction

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Consider Your Audience

When you have an opportunity to describe a research project you have been studying over a long period of time, you may be tempted to explain the whole process in great detail. Keep in mind that most members of your audience won't share your same level of interest and experience in the topic. Focus on helping your audience to understand what you did and why you're excited about it, and be sure to respect any time limits you have been given.

Questions to Address

To help your audience understand what you did and why you're excited about it, a typical presentation should address these basic questions:

Who are you?

Briefly introduce yourself. For group presentations, introduce all group members and any unique roles they played in completing the project. Acknowledge others who helped with the project (for example, a faculty mentor).

What did you study, and why does it matter?

Remember that your audience may be unfamiliar with your topic. As you introduce your topic, consider defining important terms. Avoid using jargon and acronyms, or explain them as needed. 

Even after they understand what your topic is, your audience may not know why they should care, so be sure tell them. You might start by explaining why the project matters to you, but be sure to consider other perspectives.

What did you find out, and how?

Share what you learned by engaging in the research process. Did your results confirm your expectations, or did they surprise you? Describe how you arrived at your conclusions, but keep your discussion of your research methods simple and brief (1-2 sentences).

What’s next?

How can others benefit from understanding or taking action based on your findings? How might you or others continue to build on this research or apply it to other topics?

To start drafting your presentation, try answering these questions as if you were explaining your project to a friend or a family member rather than copying sentences from your research paper. Notice how long it takes you to explain each part. This will help you focus on the key information and keep your explanations audience-friendly.

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How to Write an Effective Research Proposal Introduction

Every research proposal needs a well-written introduction. It serves as your first impression to potential readers and helps set the tone of the entire document. But learning how to write a proposal introduction  that effectively conveys the main points of your research can be difficult. Don’t worry, though, because we’re here to help.

In this article, we’ll be sharing a step-by-step guide you can follow to start writing your introduction. We’ll also discuss the importance of this section in your paper and give tips to make it more effective.

If you’re ready to write an introduction that gets people interested in your research proposal , read on.

Why Your Introduction Matters

A research introduction is a vital part of any academic paper. It serves as an essential starting point for the reader, allowing them to understand the importance of the work and what it aims to solve.

The introduction of your proposal aims to achieve the following goals:

  • State the problem your research aims to solve
  • Provide context for your research

How Long Should a Proposal Introduction Be?

Research proposal introductions should be concise but also cover all the necessary points of your research. It can be a few paragraphs long. Don’t try to throw in all the information in one paragraph.

A good word count target would be around  500 to 1000 words . This is just a general figure. It’s still best to check the journal guidelines for the specific type of paper you’re writing.

A person writing on brown wooden table near a white ceramic mug.

How to Write a Proposal Introduction

The main job of an introduction is to let readers know what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This can usually be done with the help of a strong opening hook.

Your hook can be anything from an interesting fact, a trivial question, or a strong statement relevant to your topic. It needs to be something that will pique the reader’s interest.

Explain the background of your research topic.

After giving a general overview of the topic, provide additional context and explain why your proposed research is essential. Discuss relevant theories or prior studies on the topic and how they inform your work.

Explain your objectives.

Clearly state what objectives or goals your research seeks to accomplish in relation to the problem you have established. Ensure these objectives are S.M.A.R.T., Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound.

How you frame your objectives can vary depending on the type of paper you’re writing. An argumentative paper, it’s usually in the form of a thesis statement. If you’re working on an empirical paper, you can generally pose the objective as a research question.

Describe your methods.

How will you go about conducting your research? Are there any special techniques or tools that you plan on using? Be as detailed as possible so that readers understand how the research process will be carried out.

End with a summary.

Lastly, end your introduction with a summary statement that captures the main points of your proposal.

Ensure all the key elements discussed above (research question, background info, objectives, methods) are included in the conclusion. Keep it concise and focused while leaving room for further discussion in the body of the paper.

Final Words

A well-written introduction is crucial for any research paper. It helps to set the stage and provide readers with an understanding of your work’s purpose and overall focus.

An effective research introduction not only introduces the topic at hand but helps to build credibility for the researcher’s point of view and argument. Follow these steps on how to write a proposal introduction ,  and you should have no problem getting started.

How to Write an Effective Research Proposal Introduction

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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Scientists grow 'mini kidneys,' revealing new insights into metabolic defects and potential therapy for polycystic kidney disease

Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have successfully grown 'mini kidneys' in the lab and grafted them into live mice, revealing new insights into the metabolic defects and a potential therapy for polycystic kidney disease.

'Mini kidneys,' or kidney organoids, are kidney-like structures grown in the lab using stem cells. In the study led by NTU's Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine), researchers grew the organoids using skin cells derived from patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a prevalent form of genetic condition that affects 1 in 1000 individuals across all ethnicities.*

People with PKD often progress to end-stage kidney disease between their 50s and 60s, with the standard treatment options available being dialysis or a kidney transplant. However, dialysis significantly compromises a patient's quality of life, while a transplanted kidney can be challenging to acquire. One other option is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug Tolvaptan, which is very costly and has severe side effects on the liver.

To address the need for more effective treatment for PKD patients, the NTU research team sought to better understand the disease by engrafting their newly developed mini kidneys into mice.

Previous studies were conducted on mini kidneys grown in a dish, which could only partly mimic the kidney structure and function. The NTU scientists engrafted the mini kidneys into live mice to comprehensively replicate the pathological features of kidney disease, including blood flow, fluid movement (tubular fluid) and cellular communication with other organs.

Lead investigator Assistant Professor Xia Yun at LKCMedicine said, "Engrafting the kidney organoid in mice provided us with a physiologically sophisticated approach to studying polycystic kidney disease as we were able to successfully emulate critical disease characteristics similar to those observed in human kidney patients."

Critical disease characteristics included abnormalities like the spontaneous formation of cysts in the kidneys and the subsequent damage to its tiny tubes.

In their study, reported in the scientific journal Cell Stem Cell , the NTU research team said that they believed their engrafted mini kidneys were high quality because cysts sustained without extra stress stimulation or chemicals, even after they were removed from the live mice for further investigations in a dish. In contrast, previous kidney organoids grown in a dish cannot form cysts without stress stimulation.

Co-investigator Assistant Professor Foo Jia Nee at LKCMedicine said, "The similarity between the disease manifestation observed in our engrafted mini kidney model and the real-life experiences of polycystic kidney disease patients suggest that growing kidney organoids and engrafting them into live mice could be beneficial in studying the disease and a useful tool to test new treatments."

Metabolic defects in polycystic kidney disease

Scientists have long known that abnormalities in a structure on kidney cells, or the primary cilium, cause cysts to form in kidneys. However, tests to understand the regulatory mechanism and relationship between the primary cilium and cell metabolism (autophagy) in live mice with PKD, have not been possible until now.

By studying the development of PKD in live mice and testing cellular pathways, researchers found evidence that boosting autophagy could reduce the severity of cysts in the mini kidney.

After establishing that boosting autophagy could reduce cysts, the NTU scientists shortlisted 22 drugs known for their effects on cell metabolism and tested them in the lab. Results showed that minoxidil, a clinical drug widely used to cure hypertension and hair loss, effectively reduced cyst formation in the novel mouse model.

Asst Prof Xia Yun said, "Our study has demonstrated how cysts in polycystic diseased kidneys can be reduced by boosting autophagy, suggesting that this could be a promising treatment for PKD. Moreover, the proven clinical safety of minoxidil may allow it to be quickly re-purposed to treat PKD patients in clinic. However, more research will be needed to establish this potential."

Commenting as an independent expert, Associate Professor Ng Kar Hui, Senior Consultant, Division of Paediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation, Department of Paediatrics, Khoo Teck Puat -- National University Children's Medical Institute, National University Hospital, said, "Polycystic kidney disease is one of the biggest causes of chronic kidney diseases among adults. An effective treatment may potentially ameliorate the rising numbers of people with kidney failure in Singapore. The establishment of such models in live organisms brings us one step closer to finding more treatment options.

In future studies, the NTU team will test the efficacy of minoxidil and adapt the mini kidney models to investigate other burgeoning kidney diseases without a strong genetic underpinning, such as diabetic kidney disease.

* Harris, P.C., and Torres, V.E. (2009). Polycystic kidney disease. Annual Review of Medicine. Volume 60, 321-337.

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Materials provided by Nanyang Technological University . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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  • Meng Liu, Chao Zhang, Ximing Gong, Tian Zhang, Michelle Mulan Lian, Elaine Guo Yan Chew, Angelysia Cardilla, Keiichiro Suzuki, Huamin Wang, Yuan Yuan, Yan Li, Mihir Yogesh Naik, Yixuan Wang, Bingrui Zhou, Wei Ze Soon, Emi Aizawa, Pin Li, Jian Hui Low, Moses Tandiono, Enrique Montagud, Daniel Moya–Rull, Concepcion Rodriguez Esteban, Yosu Luque, Mingliang Fang, Chiea Chuen Khor, Nuria Montserrat, Josep M. Campistol, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Jia Nee Foo, Yun Xia. Kidney organoid models reveal cilium-autophagy metabolic axis as a therapeutic target for PKD both in vitro and in vivo . Cell Stem Cell , 2024; 31 (1): 52 DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2023.12.003

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To Succeed with AI, Adopt a Beginner’s Mindset

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introduce your topic in research

Letting go of ego and expertise allows for openness and curiosity.

Times of substantial tech progress and change, like the current AI revolution, create fear and anxiety. This often causes leaders to fall back on their ego and emphasize their expertise, closing their minds and negatively impacting their people and organizations. Instead, leaders need to take on a beginner’s mindset of openness and curiosity. This is not easy. The more experienced we are, the more locked-in we tend to become in our ways of thinking and doing things. But it is possible, and with employee stress at record highs, it’s necessary. And research shows that the openness that comes with a beginner’s mindset is a crucial factor in achieving better outcomes. There are a few simple questions you can ask yourself to gauge your leadership style and whether you have a beginner’s mindset.

Every day, fears about artificial intelligence (AI) run through the news cycle: Jobs will be eliminated, intellectual property misused, personal data compromised, or biases propagated.

introduce your topic in research

  • Jacqueline Carter is a senior partner and the North American Director of Potential Project. She has extensive experience working with senior leaders to enable them to achieve better performance while enhancing a more caring culture. She is the coauthor, with Rasmus Hougaard, of Compassionate Leadership: How to Do Hard Things in a Human Way and The Mind of the Leader – How to Lead Yourself, Your People, and Your Organization for Extraordinary Results .
  • Marissa Afton is an organizational psychologist and a Partner and the head of Global Accounts at Potential Project. She is a contributing coauthor of Compassionate Leadership: How to Do Hard Things in a Human Way by Rasmus Hougaard and Jacqueline Carter.
  • Paula Kelley leads Potential Project’s global marketing function and serves its financial services clients. Prior to Potential Project, Paula was a senior executive at Citigroup and a partner at Deloitte Consulting.

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What’s it like to be a teacher in america today, public k-12 teachers are stressed about their jobs and few are optimistic about the future of education; many say poverty, absenteeism and mental health are major problems at their school.

A teacher leads an English class at a high school in Richmond, Virginia. (Parker Michels-Boyce/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Pew Research Center conducted this study to better understand the views and experiences of public K-12 school teachers. The analysis in this report is based on an online survey of 2,531 U.S. public K-12 teachers conducted from Oct. 17 to Nov. 14, 2023. The teachers surveyed are members of RAND’s American Teacher Panel, a nationally representative panel of public K-12 school teachers recruited through MDR Education. Survey data is weighted to state and national teacher characteristics to account for differences in sampling and response to ensure they are representative of the target population.

Here are the questions used for this report , along with responses, and the survey methodology .

Low-poverty , medium-poverty and high-poverty schools are based on the percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, as reported by the National Center for Education Statistics (less than 40%, 40%-59% and 60% or more, respectively).

Secondary schools include both middle schools and high schools.

All references to party affiliation include those who lean toward that party. Republicans include those who identify as Republicans and those who say they lean toward the Republican Party. Democrats include those who identify as Democrats and those who say they lean toward the Democratic Party.

Public K-12 schools in the United States face a host of challenges these days – from teacher shortages to the lingering effects of COVID-19 learning loss to political battles over curriculum .

A horizontal stacked bar chart showing that teachers are less satisfied with their jobs than U.S. workers overall.

In the midst of all this, teachers express low levels of satisfaction with their jobs. In fact, they’re much less satisfied than U.S. workers overall.

Here’s how public K-12 teachers are feeling about their jobs:

  • 77% say their job is frequently stressful.
  • 68% say it’s overwhelming.
  • 70% say their school is understaffed.
  • 52% say they would not advise a young person starting out today to become a teacher.

When it comes to how their students are doing in school, teachers are relatively downbeat about both academic performance and behavior.

Here’s how public K-12 teachers rate academic performance and behavior at their school:

A horizontal stacked bar chart showing that about half of teachers give students at their school low marks for academic performance and behavior.

  • 48% say the academic performance of most students at their school is fair or poor. A third say it’s good, and only 17% describe it as excellent or very good.
  • 49% say the behavior of most students at their school is fair or poor; 35% say it’s good and 13% say it’s excellent or very good.

The COVID-19 pandemic likely compounded these issues. About eight-in-ten teachers (among those who have been teaching for at least a year) say the lasting impact of the pandemic on students’ behavior, academic performance and emotional well-being has been very or somewhat negative.

Assessments of student performance and behavior differ widely by school poverty level. 1 Teachers in high-poverty schools have a much more negative outlook. But feelings of stress and dissatisfaction among teachers are fairly universal, regardless of where they teach.

Related: What Public K-12 Teachers Want Americans To Know About Teaching

A bar chart showing that most teachers see parents’ involvement as insufficient.

As they navigate these challenges, teachers don’t feel they’re getting the support or reinforcement they need from parents.

Majorities of teachers say parents are doing too little when it comes to holding their children accountable if they misbehave in school, helping them with their schoolwork and ensuring their attendance.

Teachers in high- and medium-poverty schools are more likely than those in low-poverty schools to say parents are doing too little in each of these areas.

These findings are based on a survey of 2,531 U.S. public K-12 teachers conducted Oct. 17-Nov. 14, 2023, using the RAND American Teacher Panel. 2 The survey looks at the following aspects of teachers’ experiences:

  • Teachers’ job satisfaction (Chapter 1)
  • How teachers manage their workload (Chapter 2)
  • Problems students are facing at public K-12 schools (Chapter 3)
  • Challenges in the classroom (Chapter 4)
  • Teachers’ views of parent involvement (Chapter 5)
  • Teachers’ views on the state of public K-12 education (Chapter 6)

Problems students are facing

A horizontal stacked bar chart showing that poverty, chronic absenteeism and mental health stand out as major problems at public K-12 schools.

We asked teachers about some of the challenges students at their school are facing. Three problems topped the list:

  • Poverty (53% say this is a major problem among students who attend their school)
  • Chronic absenteeism (49%)
  • Anxiety and depression (48%)

Chronic absenteeism (that is, students missing a substantial number of school days) is a particular challenge at high schools, with 61% of high school teachers saying this is a major problem where they teach. By comparison, 46% of middle school teachers and 43% of elementary school teachers say the same.

Anxiety and depression are viewed as a more serious problem at the secondary school level: 69% of high school teachers and 57% of middle school teachers say this is a major problem among their students, compared with 29% of elementary school teachers.

Fewer teachers (20%) view bullying as a major problem at their school, though the share is significantly higher among middle school teachers (34%).

A look inside the classroom

We also asked teachers how things are going in their classroom and specifically about some of the issues that may get in the way of teaching.

  • 47% of teachers say students showing little or no interest in learning is a major problem in their classroom. The share rises to 58% among high school teachers.
  • 33% say students being distracted by their cellphones is a major problem. This is particularly an issue for high school teachers, with 72% saying this is a major problem.
  • About one-in-five teachers say students getting up and walking around when they’re not supposed to and being disrespectful toward them (21% each) are major problems. Teachers in elementary and middle schools are more likely than those in high schools to see these as challenges.

A majority of teachers (68%) say they’ve experienced verbal abuse from a student – such as being yelled at or threatened. Some 21% say this happens at least a few times a month.

Physical violence is less common. Even so, 40% of teachers say a student has been violent toward them , with 9% saying this happens at least a few times a month.

About two-thirds of teachers (66%) say that the current discipline practices at their school are very or somewhat mild. Only 2% say the discipline practices at their school are very or somewhat harsh, while 31% say they are neither harsh nor mild. Most teachers (67%) say teachers themselves don’t have enough influence in determining discipline practices at their school.

Behavioral issues and mental health challenges

A bar chart showing that two-thirds of teachers in high-poverty schools say they have to address students’ behavioral issues daily.

In addition to their teaching duties, a majority of teachers (58%) say they have to address behavioral issues in their classroom every day. About three-in-ten teachers (28%) say they have to help students with mental health challenges daily.

In each of these areas, elementary and middle school teachers are more likely than those at the high school level to say they do these things on a daily basis.

And teachers in high-poverty schools are more likely than those in medium- and low-poverty schools to say they deal with these issues each day.

Cellphone policies and enforcement

A diverging bar chart showing that most high school teachers say cellphone policies are hard to enforce.

Most teachers (82%) say their school or district has policies regarding cellphone use in the classroom.

Of those, 56% say these policies are at least somewhat easy to enforce, 30% say they’re difficult to enforce, and 14% say they’re neither easy nor difficult to enforce.

Experiences with cellphone policies vary widely across school levels. High school teachers (60%) are much more likely than middle school (30%) and elementary school teachers (12%) to say the policies are difficult to enforce (among those who say their school or district has a cellphone policy).

How teachers are experiencing their jobs

Thinking about the various aspects of their jobs, teachers are most satisfied with their relationship with other teachers at their school (71% are extremely or very satisfied).

They’re least satisfied with how much they’re paid – only 15% are extremely or very satisfied with their pay, while 51% are not too or not at all satisfied.

Among teachers who don’t plan to retire or stop working this year, 29% say it’s at least somewhat likely they will look for a new job in the 2023-24 school year. Within that group, 40% say they would look for a job outside of education, 29% say they’d seek a non-teaching job in education, and only 18% say they’d look for a teaching job at another public K-12 school.

Do teachers find their work fulfilling and enjoyable?

Overall, 56% of teachers say they find their job to be fulfilling extremely often or often; 53% say their job is enjoyable. These are significantly lower than the shares who say their job is frequently stressful (77%) or overwhelming (68%).

Positive experiences are more common among newer teachers. Two-thirds of those who’ve been teaching less than six years say their work is fulfilling extremely often or often, and 62% of this group says their work is frequently enjoyable.

Teachers with longer tenures are somewhat less likely to feel this way. For example, 48% of those who’ve been teaching for six to 10 years say their work is frequently enjoyable.

Balancing the workload

Most teachers (84%) say there’s not enough time during their regular work hours to do tasks like grading, lesson planning, paperwork and answering work emails.

Among those who feel this way, 81% say simply having too much work is a major reason.

Many also point to having to spend time helping students outside the classroom, performing non-teaching duties like lunch duty, and covering other teachers’ classrooms as at least minor reasons they don’t have enough time to get all their work done.

A diverging bar chart showing that a majority of teachers say it’s difficult for them to achieve work-life balance.

A majority of teachers (54%) say it’s very or somewhat difficult for them to balance work and their personal life. About one-in-four (26%) say it’s very or somewhat easy for them to balance these things, and 20% say it’s neither easy nor difficult.

Among teachers, women are more likely than men to say work-life balance is difficult for them (57% vs. 43%). Women teachers are also more likely to say they often find their job stressful or overwhelming.

How teachers view the education system

A large majority of teachers (82%) say the overall state of public K-12 education has gotten worse in the past five years.

Pie charts showing that most teachers say public K-12 education has gotten worse over the past 5 years.

And very few are optimistic about the next five years: Only 20% of teachers say public K-12 education will be a lot or somewhat better five years from now. A narrow majority (53%) say it will be worse.

Among teachers who think things have gotten worse in recent years, majorities say the current political climate (60%) and the lasting effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (57%) are major reasons. A sizable share (46%) also point to changes in the availability of funding and resources.

Related:  About half of Americans say public K-12 education is going in the wrong direction

Which political party do teachers trust more to deal with educational challenges?

On balance, more teachers say they trust the Democratic Party than say they trust the Republican Party to do a better job handling key issues facing the K-12 education system. But three-in-ten or more across the following issues say they don’t trust either party:

  • Shaping school curriculum (42% say they trust neither party)
  • Ensuring teachers have adequate pay and benefits (35%)
  • Making schools safer (35%)
  • Ensuring adequate funding for schools (33%)
  • Ensuring all students have equal access to high-quality K-12 education (31%)

A majority of public K-12 teachers (58%) identify or lean toward the Democratic Party. This is higher than the share among the general public (47%).

  • Poverty levels are based on the percentage of students in the school who are eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. ↩
  • For details, refer to the Methodology section of the report. ↩
  • Urban, suburban and rural schools are based on the location of the school as reported by the National Center for Education Statistics (rural includes town). Definitions match those used by the U.S. Census Bureau. ↩

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Table of contents, ‘back to school’ means anytime from late july to after labor day, depending on where in the u.s. you live, among many u.s. children, reading for fun has become less common, federal data shows, most european students learn english in school, for u.s. teens today, summer means more schooling and less leisure time than in the past, about one-in-six u.s. teachers work second jobs – and not just in the summer, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Starting the research process

A Beginner's Guide to Starting the Research Process

Research process steps

When you have to write a thesis or dissertation , it can be hard to know where to begin, but there are some clear steps you can follow.

The research process often begins with a very broad idea for a topic you’d like to know more about. You do some preliminary research to identify a  problem . After refining your research questions , you can lay out the foundations of your research design , leading to a proposal that outlines your ideas and plans.

This article takes you through the first steps of the research process, helping you narrow down your ideas and build up a strong foundation for your research project.

Table of contents

Step 1: choose your topic, step 2: identify a problem, step 3: formulate research questions, step 4: create a research design, step 5: write a research proposal, other interesting articles.

First you have to come up with some ideas. Your thesis or dissertation topic can start out very broad. Think about the general area or field you’re interested in—maybe you already have specific research interests based on classes you’ve taken, or maybe you had to consider your topic when applying to graduate school and writing a statement of purpose .

Even if you already have a good sense of your topic, you’ll need to read widely to build background knowledge and begin narrowing down your ideas. Conduct an initial literature review to begin gathering relevant sources. As you read, take notes and try to identify problems, questions, debates, contradictions and gaps. Your aim is to narrow down from a broad area of interest to a specific niche.

Make sure to consider the practicalities: the requirements of your programme, the amount of time you have to complete the research, and how difficult it will be to access sources and data on the topic. Before moving onto the next stage, it’s a good idea to discuss the topic with your thesis supervisor.

>>Read more about narrowing down a research topic

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introduce your topic in research

So you’ve settled on a topic and found a niche—but what exactly will your research investigate, and why does it matter? To give your project focus and purpose, you have to define a research problem .

The problem might be a practical issue—for example, a process or practice that isn’t working well, an area of concern in an organization’s performance, or a difficulty faced by a specific group of people in society.

Alternatively, you might choose to investigate a theoretical problem—for example, an underexplored phenomenon or relationship, a contradiction between different models or theories, or an unresolved debate among scholars.

To put the problem in context and set your objectives, you can write a problem statement . This describes who the problem affects, why research is needed, and how your research project will contribute to solving it.

>>Read more about defining a research problem

Next, based on the problem statement, you need to write one or more research questions . These target exactly what you want to find out. They might focus on describing, comparing, evaluating, or explaining the research problem.

A strong research question should be specific enough that you can answer it thoroughly using appropriate qualitative or quantitative research methods. It should also be complex enough to require in-depth investigation, analysis, and argument. Questions that can be answered with “yes/no” or with easily available facts are not complex enough for a thesis or dissertation.

In some types of research, at this stage you might also have to develop a conceptual framework and testable hypotheses .

>>See research question examples

The research design is a practical framework for answering your research questions. It involves making decisions about the type of data you need, the methods you’ll use to collect and analyze it, and the location and timescale of your research.

There are often many possible paths you can take to answering your questions. The decisions you make will partly be based on your priorities. For example, do you want to determine causes and effects, draw generalizable conclusions, or understand the details of a specific context?

You need to decide whether you will use primary or secondary data and qualitative or quantitative methods . You also need to determine the specific tools, procedures, and materials you’ll use to collect and analyze your data, as well as your criteria for selecting participants or sources.

>>Read more about creating a research design

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Finally, after completing these steps, you are ready to complete a research proposal . The proposal outlines the context, relevance, purpose, and plan of your research.

As well as outlining the background, problem statement, and research questions, the proposal should also include a literature review that shows how your project will fit into existing work on the topic. The research design section describes your approach and explains exactly what you will do.

You might have to get the proposal approved by your supervisor before you get started, and it will guide the process of writing your thesis or dissertation.

>>Read more about writing a research proposal

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

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introduce your topic in research

Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

Define your specific research problem and problem statement. Highlight the novelty and contributions of the study. Give an overview of the paper's structure. The research paper introduction can vary in size and structure depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or is a review paper.

Step 2: Building a solid foundation with background information. Including background information in your introduction serves two major purposes: It helps to clarify the topic for the reader. It establishes the depth of your research. The approach you take when conveying this information depends on the type of paper.

Research Paper Introduction. Research paper introduction is the first section of a research paper that provides an overview of the study, its purpose, and the research question(s) or hypothesis(es) being investigated. It typically includes background information about the topic, a review of previous research in the field, and a statement of the research objectives.

Introduce your topic. This is a significant part of how to write an introduction for a research paper. The first task of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it is interesting or important. This is usually done with a strong opening hook. A hook is a strong opening sentence that conveys relevance to your topic.

Download Article. 1. Announce your research topic. You can start your introduction with a few sentences which announce the topic of your paper and give an indication of the kind of research questions you will be asking. This is a good way to introduce your readers to your topic and pique their interest.

Hannah, a writer and editor since 2017, specializes in clear and concise academic and business writing. She has mentored countless scholars and companies in writing authoritative and engaging content. A great research paper introduction starts with a catchy hook and ends with a road map for the research. At every step, QuillBot can help.

Introducing Your Topic. Provide a brief overview, which should give the reader a general understanding of the subject matter and its significance. Explain the importance of the topic and its relevance to the field. This will help the reader understand why your research is significant and why they should continue reading.

Your subject introduction might include some historical context, or a brief overview of the significance of your field. Either way, prepare to narrow down that general overview to your specific research. Let the reader know what you're working on. More importantly, explain why your research is important. Perhaps you're seeking to fill in a ...

First write your thesis.Your thesis should state the main idea in specific terms. After you have a working thesis, tackle the body of your paper before you write the rest of the introduction. Each paragraph in the body should explore one specific topic that proves, or summarizes your thesis. Writing is a thinking process.

The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, explaining briefly ...

Generally, the introduction helps you to show your audience why your research topic is worth exploring. It gives you the chance to convince your reader why they should stick around and see what you have to say. The first 1-2 sentences of your introduction should give an elevator pitch of your work. Be clear, relevant, and to the point.

Narrow the overview until you address your paper's specific subject. Then, mention questions or concerns you had about the case. Note that you will address them in the publication. Prior research. Your introduction is the place to review other conclusions on your topic. Include both older scholars and modern scholars.

Table of contents. Step 1: Hook your reader. Step 2: Give background information. Step 3: Present your thesis statement. Step 4: Map your essay's structure. Step 5: Check and revise. More examples of essay introductions. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about the essay introduction.

While writing your background, you must: Mention the main developments in your research area. Highlight significant questions that need to be addressed. Discuss the relevant aspects of your study. Related reading: 4 Step approach to writing the Introduction section of a research paper. The secret to writing the introduction and methods section ...

The key thing is. to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas. Step 2: Describe the background. This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is ...

The introduction to your research paper is the reader's first contact with your work. Therefore, it should be both informative and captivating to engage them in reading further. To ensure that you are crafting an effective introduction, consider utilizing key concepts when constructing yours: Explain Thesis/Purpose.

Remember that your audience may be unfamiliar with your topic. As you introduce your topic, consider defining important terms. Avoid using jargon and acronyms, or explain them as needed. ... Share what you learned by engaging in the research process. Did your results confirm your expectations, or did they surprise you? Describe how you arrived ...

A research introduction is a vital part of any academic paper. It serves as an essential starting point for the reader, allowing them to understand the importance of the work and what it aims to solve. The introduction of your proposal aims to achieve the following goals: Introduce your topic; State the problem your research aims to solve

Here are six key facts about Americans and TikTok, drawn from Pew Research Center surveys. A third of U.S. adults - including a majority of adults under 30 - use TikTok. Around six-in-ten U.S. adults under 30 (62%) say they use TikTok, compared with 39% of those ages 30 to 49, 24% of those 50 to 64, and 10% of those 65 and older. In a 2023 ...

Combining all these studies together for a large-scale analysis offers a clearer answer: yes, touch substantially improves both physical and mental wellbeing, for example via reduction of pain ...

Scientists have successfully grown 'mini kidneys' in the lab and grafted them into live mice, revealing new insights into the metabolic defects and a potential therapy for polycystic kidney disease.

Introduction. The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why. Your introduction should: Introduce your topic; Give necessary background and context; Outline your problem statement and research questions; To guide your introduction, include information about:

Sustainable growth can be elusive. Research has shown that only about 15% of the companies in the top growth quartile in 1985 were able to sustain their top-quartile performance for at least 30 ...

Major problems at school. When we asked teachers about a range of problems that may affect students who attend their school, the following issues top the list: Poverty (53% say this is a major problem at their school) Chronic absenteeism - that is, students missing a substantial number of school days (49%) Anxiety and depression (48%) One-in ...

Times of substantial tech progress and change, like the current AI revolution, create fear and anxiety. This often causes leaders to fall back on their ego and emphasize their expertise, closing ...

77% say their job is frequently stressful. 68% say it's overwhelming. 70% say their school is understaffed. 52% say they would not advise a young person starting out today to become a teacher. When it comes to how their students are doing in school, teachers are relatively downbeat about both academic performance and behavior.

Step 1: Choose your topic. First you have to come up with some ideas. Your thesis or dissertation topic can start out very broad. Think about the general area or field you're interested in—maybe you already have specific research interests based on classes you've taken, or maybe you had to consider your topic when applying to graduate school and writing a statement of purpose.

This is why preventing the damage in the first place is so important. A NASA map shows the path and time of the solar eclipse on April 8. No sunglasses, and beware of fake eclipse glasses. The first thing to know is sunglasses will NOT protect your eyes from looking at the eclipse. "Some people mistakenly think putting on very dark sunglasses ...


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